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What our ancestors’ genomes can tell us about modern health | Explained
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Naye adhyayan ki ek jhankar mein, researchers ne manushya ke purvajon ki bhojan, jeevan shaili ke sthiti, aur bimariyon ke baare mein darshaya hai unke DNA ke tukdon ka istemal karke.

Hum kahan se aaye? Hamare purvaj kya khate the? Hamare purvajon ne kin viprit paristhitiyon ka samna kiya? Kuch hamare purvajon ka it sudden gayab kyun ho gaya?

Yeh aur anek aise sawalon ne logon ko lambi samay tak akarshit kiya hai. Prachin DNA (aDNA) adhyayan, kati pichdi genome takneekon dwara sashakt hokar, hamare purvajon ke jenatmak banavat ke baare mein anokhe darshan pradan karte hain. Aur prachin khaadan rekhon se DNA ka nikaalna aur vishleshana karke, vaigyanik in logon ke jenatmak profile ko punarsthapit kar sakte hain.

Aise purvajik DNA ke adhyayan ne prachin samudaayon ki jenatmak vividhta aur jansankhya gatividhiyon, unki prasthan paddhatiyon, sanparkon aur sthalik paristhitiyon ke prati aanukoolan, aur vyakti ki vikas ke rup mein kaise bimariyon ke samna kiya aur yeh bimariyan manav ki vikas ko kis tarah prabhavit kiya, is par ek jhalak pradan ki hai.

Udaharan ke liye, jenomik takneekon ne researchers ko ek tareeka pradan kiya hai ki ve doorbhavna mein phaile pathagon ko samajh sakein aur unka uday aur vikas ka samay rekhaanukaran karein. In jeevano ke jenom ko punarsthapit karke, unhone manushya itihas mein samay samay par faile hue sankramanakari bimariyon ka uday, prasar aur aanukoolan jodh liya hai.

Swasthya ke baare mein purvajik DNA kya kah sakta hai?
Kuch haal hi mein pesh ki gayi adhyano mein, researchers ne bhi darshaya hai ki ve purvajik manushyon ko prabhavit karne wali jenetik bimariyon ko samajhne ke liye aDNA ke kramon ka istemal kar sakte hain, aur uske madhyam se prachin manav samudaayon ke dawaaon aur upkaranon ke baare mein ek jhalak mil sakti hai. Aise darshan hamare jenatmak itihas ki jaankaari ko vridhhi dete hain sath hi alag alag janajatiyon ke bich arogya vibhedon ka kaise utpann hua is par bhi prabhav padta hai.

Udaharan ke liye, kuch adhik samanya jenetik bimariyan chromosome aniyamitataon ka parinam hoti hain. Aniyojitataon mein parinat bahut saare chromosom nimantran parinam - yaani, poorn chromosom ke adhik ya hataane - jiski wajah se alag alag clinic syndromes hoti hain. Udaharan ke liye, Down’s syndrome ko ek adhik chromosome 21 ke karan hota hai; Klinefelter’s syndrome ek adhik X chromosome ke karan hota hai; aur mahilaon mein do X chromosome mein se ek ka kho jana Turner syndrome ka karan hai.

Purvajik DNA ko ek bimari ka itihas se kaise jod sakte hain?
Chromosomal karyotyping ek cell mein poorn chromosom set ko dikhaane ka ek tarika hai, aur aise aniyamitataon ka nirdhaarit karne ke liye yeh behtareen takneekon mein se ek hai. Halaanki, karyotyping ko jeevit koshikayon ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jo ki vaigyanik ko unhe sansadhaniya vidhiyon ko sanskriti aur rang dene ke liye prayatnshil ho jaana hai.

Lekin pichle dasak mein kiye gaye aage ki pragatiyon ki wajah se, vaigyanik aaj kal khush kismati se toote aur/ya bigde hue DNA se poore-jenom anuveshan data ka istemal kar sakte hain chromosomal aniyamitataon ko samajhne ke liye. Vaigyanik ne tab se aise upayon ko prashikshan mein le liya hai jisme purvajik DNA mein chromosomal aniyamitataon ka adhyayan kiya gaya hai.

Udaharan ke liye, 11 January ko, London ke Francis Crick Institute ke researchers ne purane Iron age se British ke Turner syndrome, Kinefelter’s syndrome, aur Down’s syndrome ke kuch pehle jaane gaye pratham ghatnaon ke saboot prakashit kiye.

Ussi tarah, ek shodh samuh ne Italy, Germany, aur U.S. se aaveshanik taur par modern manav mein hriday rog se judi jenetik parivartan ka ek dilchasp vishleshana prastut kiya. Unhone visheshayon ki seva karne ke liye 22 mummytized vyaktiyon se DNA ka adhyayan kiya, jo alag alag bhu-geographical kshetron aur samay-avadoyon se the. 17 purvajon ko 3600 BC tak darj kiya gaya tha jabki Bolivia, Peru, Switzerland, aur Australia ke wale 1500-1900 AD ke the.

In vaigyanik ne prateek jenom ke vishesh bhaagon ko sampurn-genom sequencing data se prakashit karne ka naya tareeka istemal kiya jo ki modern manav mein atherosclerotic hriday rog se jude the. Phir, jab unhone in bhaagon ko shek kiya, vaigyanik ne prachin logon ka hriday rog vikas ke khatron ko 87 jenetik parivartan par aadharit karke nirdharit kiya jo ki 56 jenon mein map hue the - jo modern manav mein bhi achchi tarah se adhyayan ki

ye gaye the. Is tareeke se, team ne nirdharit kiya ki paanch mummytized samples mein hriday rog vikas ke liye khatra kafi adhik tha aur do ki hriday naso mein pattharana tha, jo ki saabit karta hai ki unhe pehle se hi yeh bimari thi.

Sabhi me, vaigyanik ne kaha ki unka maanna hai ki kam se kam 5,000 saal se manav jansankhya mein hriday rog phaila hua hai.

Purvajik DNA kaise kisi bhojan se jod sakti hai?
Prachin manavon ke jeevan shaili ke baare mein darshan bhi unke jenetik avasheshon se mil sakte hain. Ek aisa samagri hai teend ki ped se laava. Kuch saboot hai ki purane manushya ne teend ki ped se bhojanik samagri ko thik karne aur shayad teer ke sir ko thik karne mein vyapak roop se upayog kiya. Sampl se aaye microorganisms manushyon ke jisee swasth ke baare mein jaankaari prakat kar sakte hain jo usne chabaya tha.

Udaharan ke liye, 18 January ko ek adhyayan mein, scientists Finland, Norway, Sweden, aur Turkey se teen chabaye gaye pitch ke tukdon se prapt DNA ka vishleshan kiya jo lagbhag 9,500 saal purana tha, ek sthal se Sweden mein prapt kiya gaya tha. Pitch ke samples ko shek karne par, vaigyanik ne logo ke saath saath inflamed masoodon (periodontitis) ke vyaktiyon mein dekhi jaane waali prakritik prakritik kadi vishamta se jude jeevano ko pahchaan liya. Team ne bhi kai vanaspati aur jantu prajatiyon ke saath DNA ko milaya, jo purvajon ke bhojan ke baare mein ishara karte hain.

Purvajik DNA kya aur kya prakat kar sakta hai?
Purvajik DNA ke adhyayan bhi patthar ke upkaranon ke srishti aur vikas ke baare mein bade hint pradan kar sakte hain. 1930s mein, udaharan ke liye, researchers ne Ranis, Germany mein ek gufa khodi, jahan unhone kai prachin patthar ke upkaranon ko pehchaana. Is sthal par ek purane manushya jansankhya ka vassthav mana gaya tha, lagbhag 50,000 saal purani jab aadhunik manushya, neanderthals, aur denisovans sath mein the. To sawal yah tha ki yeh upkaran asal mein kaun banaya tha.

Is prashn mein uthe hue dharmik mein ruchi ka ek taufa ne purane gufa ko nedhe ko punah khodne ke liye prarit kiya, jab unhone kai haddi avashesh paye. Jab unhone in haddiyon se genetik saaman ka shek kiya, unhone high-throughput sequencing ka upayog kiya, jo DNA kramon ko saaf disha mein dikha raha tha ki Homo sapiens ki or ishara kar raha tha. Jab unhone radiocarbon dating ka upayog karke sampelon ki tareekh tay ki, to sampels ko lagbhag 45,000 saal purani payi gayi.

Lekhak Vishwanath Cancer Care Foundation ke seniya salahkaron aur Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ke sahayak professors hain. Sabhi ray vyaktigat hain.

image source pixabay