Category: TECHNOLOGY

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

TRAI recommends CNAP to address spam, fraudulent, robocalls: Here's what it is, how it works

CNAP, or Calling Name Presentation, is an initiative aimed at combating the surge in fraudulent calls, robocalls, and spam, which often result in individuals missing genuine calls. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) proposed CNAP as a solution to this issue, suggesting that mobile network operators display the caller's identity based on registration data collected during the KYC process.

TRAI's recommendation includes implementing CNAP across all devices in India after a specified deadline to ensure widespread adoption. While third-party applications like Bharat Caller ID & Anti-Spam and Truecaller offer similar services, TRAI cautions against relying solely on crowd-sourced data for caller identification.

In response to TRAI's proposal, service providers are urged to offer CNAP as a supplementary service upon subscribers' request. Additionally, TRAI suggests allowing subscribers with bulk or business connections to present their preferred name instead of the one listed in their Customer Application Form (CAF).

These recommendations stem from a Department of Telecommunications (DoT) initiative seeking input on CNAP's introduction earlier in March 2022. Meanwhile, the government has formed a committee to develop guidelines addressing pesky, promotional, or unsolicited calls, which encroach upon consumers' privacy rights. This decision was made during a recent meeting chaired by Consumer Affairs Secretary Rohit Kumar Singh.

 

 

CNAP का उद्देश्य जालसाजी के उच्च मात्रा के मामलों, रोबोकॉल्स, और स्पैम के मुद्दे का समाधान करना है। कई बार इन कॉलों के कारण लोग सही कॉल्स को छूट जाते हैं। TRAI ने पहले ही नवंबर 2022 में CNAP पर एक परामर्श पत्र जारी किया था।

भारतीय दूरसंचार नियामक प्राधिकरण (TRAI) ने मोबाइल नेटवर्क ऑपरेटरों को कॉलर की पहचान प्रदर्शित करने की सेवा की सिफारिश की है। इस सेवा को कॉलिंग नाम प्रस्तुति (CNAP) कहा जाता है और यह KYC प्रक्रिया के दौरान प्रस्तुत किए गए पंजीकरण डेटा के आधार पर कॉलर की पहचान प्रदर्शित करेगी। इस सेवा का उद्देश्य जालसाजी के उच्च मात्रा के मामलों, रोबोकॉल्स, और स्पैम के मुद्दे का समाधान करना है। कई बार इन कॉलों के कारण लोग सही कॉल्स को छूट जाते हैं। TRAI ने पहले ही नवंबर 2022 में CNAP पर एक परामर्श पत्र जारी किया था।

TRAI ने सिफारिश की है कि सरकार को निर्दिष्ट कटौती तिथि के बाद भारत में उपलब्ध सभी डिवाइसों में CNAP सुविधा होने के सुनिश्चित करने के लिए उपयुक्त निर्देश जारी किए जाने चाहिए।

भारत कॉलर आईडी और एंटी-स्पैम, ट्रूकॉलर, और कुछ प्राकृतिक स्मार्टफोन उपकरणों जैसे कई तीसरे पक्ष के एप्लिकेशन जालसाजी और कॉलिंग पार्टी का नाम पहचान सेवाएं प्रदान करते हैं लेकिन TRAI कहता है कि ये सेवाएं पूरी तरह से विश्वसनीय नहीं हैं क्योंकि ये जन-स्रोतित डेटा पर आधारित हैं।

"सभी एक्सेस सेवा प्रदाताओं को अपने टेलीफोन सब्सक्राइबर्स को उनकी अनुरोध पर कॉलिंग नाम प्रस्तुति (CNAP) सहायक सेवा प्रदान करनी चाहिए," TRAI ने अपने रिलीज में कहा।

TRAI ने यह भी सुझाव दिया है कि बल्क कनेक्शन और व्यापारिक कनेक्शन धारकों को अपने 'पसंदीदा नाम' को प्रस्तुत करने की अनुमति दी जानी चाहिए जो उनके ग्राहक आवेदन पत्र (CAF) में उल्लिखित नाम की बजाय हो।

TRAI की सिफारिशें दूरसंचार विभाग (डीओटी) की पहल पर आधारित हैं जहां उसने मार्च 2022 में CNAP सुविधा की शुरुआत पर विचार मांगा

 था।

इसी बीच, सरकार ने उपभोक्ताओं द्वारा प्राप्त किए गए तंग करने वाले, प्रोमोशनल, या अनवांछित कॉलों के समस्या का सामना करने के लिए दिशा-निर्देश तैयार करने के लिए एक समिति का गठन किया है। इन कॉलों से उपभोक्ताओं के निजता का अधिकार हानि होती है। यह निर्णय उपभोक्ता मामले सचिव रोहित कुमार सिंह द्वारा चलाई गई एक बैठक में हाल ही में लिया गया था।

"उपभोक्ताओं द्वारा प्राप्त किए गए तंग करने वाले/प्रोमोशनल या अनवांछित वाणिज्यिक कॉलों की समस्या का सामना करने के लिए, उपभोक्ता मामले विभाग ने एक समिति गठित की है," एक आधिकारिक बयान में कहा गया।"

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

Isro successfully launches weather satellite INSAT-3DS on GSLVF14 to boost ocean monitoring

ISRO ne SEO friendly keywords ka istemal karke mausam satellite INSAT-3DS ko GSLVF14 par safalata purvak chhoda hai taaki samundri monitoring ko badhava mil sake.

Bharatiya Antariksh Anusandhan Sangathan (ISRO) ne Shaniwar ko bhaari vajan vali Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk-II (GSLV-MkII) ke saath INSAT-3DS mission ko antriksh mein safalata purvak prakshepit kiya.

Ye mission, 10 saal tak antriksh mein kaam karne ke liye taiyaar kiya gaya hai aur iska uddeshya Bharat ki paryavaran monitoring, samudri observations, mausam ka purvagrah, aur aapda prabandhan karyon ko badhava dena hai. Yeh Sriharikota ke Satish Dhawan Antariksh Kendra se 5:35 pm IST par udaan bharne ka samay liya.

Udaan ke saath hi, yantr ne satellite ko shuruaati roop se geostationary transfer orbit mein bheja, jiske baad ise prithvi ke charo taraf ek geostationary orbit mein laaya jayega. Yeh orbit Prithvi ke equator se 35,000 kilometer upar hoti hai.

Ye saal ka doosra prakshepan tha Isro ke dwara pehle din hi XPoSat mission ko safalata purvak antriksh mein prakshepit karne ke baad.

Isro ke mukhya S Somnath ne apne team ko badhai dete hue kaha, "Main bahut khush hoon ki GSLV-F14 INSAT-3DS mission ka poora ho gaya hai. Ise achhe orbit mein sthapit kiya gaya hai aur yantr ne bahut accha kaam kiya hai."

INSAT-3DS KYA HAI?
INSAT-3DS, ek state-of-the-art mausami upagrah hai, jo Bharat ke tisare peedhi ke upagrahon mein ek naye shreni ka hissa hai jo geostationary orbit mein sthit hai.

Iske pichhle upagrahon, INSAT-3D aur INSAT-3DR ke safal prakshepan ke baad, jo apne apne prakshepan se mausami observation aur analysis ko badhava dene mein mahatvapurn rahe, INSAT-3DR ka kaam September 2016 se chal raha hai.

INSAT-3DS ANTRIKSH MEIN KYA LE JA RAHA HAI
Ye upagrah ek multi-spectral Imager (optical radiometer) se laga hua hai jo Prithvi aur uske as-pas ke chhah alag alag wavelength bands mein chitra capture kar sakta hai. INSAT-3DS mein ek majboot Sounder payload bhi hai jismein kul milakar 19 channels hain, jismein ek Visible channel aur atharah narrow spectral channels shamil hain. Sounder payload ko aakash ke lambdikal mein vital jankari pradan karne ke liye nirmaan kiya gaya hai, jismein temperature, humidity, aur aur bhi kai parameters shamil hain.

Satellite mein ek Data Relay Transponder (DRT) bhi hai jo meteorological, hydrological, aur oceanographic data ko automatic Data collection platforms/Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) se poora vishv mein prapt karta hai. DRT fir yah mahatvapurn jankari wapas user terminals tak pahunchata hai, yeh global data dissemination mein efisaintata ko dhyan mein rakhta hai.

Ek Satellite-aided Search and Rescue (SA&SR) transponder bhi spacecraft ke saath bheja gaya hai jo sanket transmitters se sanket sandesh aur alert detections ko relay karta hai. Yeh kshamata Search and Rescue operations ko kaafi badhaava deti hai aur UHF band mein global coverage pradan karti hai.

INSAT-3DS ANTRIKSH MEIN KYA KAREGA?
Upagrah ke mukhya uddeshya bahut saare aur mahatvapurn hain paryavaran monitoring aur suraksha ke liye. Ismein Prithvi ke surface ki monitoring aur vibhinn spectral channels mein samudri observations karne ki yogyata hai jo mausami vishleshan ke liye mahatvapurn hai.

2274 kilogram ka INSAT-3DS upagrah aage badhe hue payloads se laga hua hai jo vatavaran ke sthitiyon par adhik sahi aur samay par data pradan karne ke liye nirmaan kiya gaya hai.

Maushami sewaon mein is sudhar se kai kshetron ko kafi fayda milne ki ummeed hai, jismein krishi, udaan, aur aapda prabandhan shamil hain, jo mausam se judi challenges ke liye behtar taiyari ko sanjoyan karega.

Yeh mausam ki sahi bhavishyavani ke liye avashyak anuvanshik parameters jaise ki temperature aur humidity ki kuchh upagrahik profile pradan karega.

Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) upagrah ke data collection aur dissemination capabilities se fayda uthayenge, jankari ekatmata aur prapti ki efisaintata ko badhakar. Aur sath hi, INSAT-3DS Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services pradan karega, aapda prabandhan ki koshishon mein yogdan dete hue.

GSLV-MkII jo ki yantr ko antriksh mein le gaya, ab tak 2001 se 15 mission poora kar chuka hai. Inmein se 11 mission safal rahe hain aur GSLV-F14 bhari vajan vali yaan ka 16va mission tha."

image source isro

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

What our ancestors’ genomes can tell us about modern health | Explained

Naye adhyayan ki ek jhankar mein, researchers ne manushya ke purvajon ki bhojan, jeevan shaili ke sthiti, aur bimariyon ke baare mein darshaya hai unke DNA ke tukdon ka istemal karke.

Hum kahan se aaye? Hamare purvaj kya khate the? Hamare purvajon ne kin viprit paristhitiyon ka samna kiya? Kuch hamare purvajon ka it sudden gayab kyun ho gaya?

Yeh aur anek aise sawalon ne logon ko lambi samay tak akarshit kiya hai. Prachin DNA (aDNA) adhyayan, kati pichdi genome takneekon dwara sashakt hokar, hamare purvajon ke jenatmak banavat ke baare mein anokhe darshan pradan karte hain. Aur prachin khaadan rekhon se DNA ka nikaalna aur vishleshana karke, vaigyanik in logon ke jenatmak profile ko punarsthapit kar sakte hain.

Aise purvajik DNA ke adhyayan ne prachin samudaayon ki jenatmak vividhta aur jansankhya gatividhiyon, unki prasthan paddhatiyon, sanparkon aur sthalik paristhitiyon ke prati aanukoolan, aur vyakti ki vikas ke rup mein kaise bimariyon ke samna kiya aur yeh bimariyan manav ki vikas ko kis tarah prabhavit kiya, is par ek jhalak pradan ki hai.

Udaharan ke liye, jenomik takneekon ne researchers ko ek tareeka pradan kiya hai ki ve doorbhavna mein phaile pathagon ko samajh sakein aur unka uday aur vikas ka samay rekhaanukaran karein. In jeevano ke jenom ko punarsthapit karke, unhone manushya itihas mein samay samay par faile hue sankramanakari bimariyon ka uday, prasar aur aanukoolan jodh liya hai.

Swasthya ke baare mein purvajik DNA kya kah sakta hai?
Kuch haal hi mein pesh ki gayi adhyano mein, researchers ne bhi darshaya hai ki ve purvajik manushyon ko prabhavit karne wali jenetik bimariyon ko samajhne ke liye aDNA ke kramon ka istemal kar sakte hain, aur uske madhyam se prachin manav samudaayon ke dawaaon aur upkaranon ke baare mein ek jhalak mil sakti hai. Aise darshan hamare jenatmak itihas ki jaankaari ko vridhhi dete hain sath hi alag alag janajatiyon ke bich arogya vibhedon ka kaise utpann hua is par bhi prabhav padta hai.

Udaharan ke liye, kuch adhik samanya jenetik bimariyan chromosome aniyamitataon ka parinam hoti hain. Aniyojitataon mein parinat bahut saare chromosom nimantran parinam - yaani, poorn chromosom ke adhik ya hataane - jiski wajah se alag alag clinic syndromes hoti hain. Udaharan ke liye, Down’s syndrome ko ek adhik chromosome 21 ke karan hota hai; Klinefelter’s syndrome ek adhik X chromosome ke karan hota hai; aur mahilaon mein do X chromosome mein se ek ka kho jana Turner syndrome ka karan hai.

Purvajik DNA ko ek bimari ka itihas se kaise jod sakte hain?
Chromosomal karyotyping ek cell mein poorn chromosom set ko dikhaane ka ek tarika hai, aur aise aniyamitataon ka nirdhaarit karne ke liye yeh behtareen takneekon mein se ek hai. Halaanki, karyotyping ko jeevit koshikayon ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jo ki vaigyanik ko unhe sansadhaniya vidhiyon ko sanskriti aur rang dene ke liye prayatnshil ho jaana hai.

Lekin pichle dasak mein kiye gaye aage ki pragatiyon ki wajah se, vaigyanik aaj kal khush kismati se toote aur/ya bigde hue DNA se poore-jenom anuveshan data ka istemal kar sakte hain chromosomal aniyamitataon ko samajhne ke liye. Vaigyanik ne tab se aise upayon ko prashikshan mein le liya hai jisme purvajik DNA mein chromosomal aniyamitataon ka adhyayan kiya gaya hai.

Udaharan ke liye, 11 January ko, London ke Francis Crick Institute ke researchers ne purane Iron age se British ke Turner syndrome, Kinefelter’s syndrome, aur Down’s syndrome ke kuch pehle jaane gaye pratham ghatnaon ke saboot prakashit kiye.

Ussi tarah, ek shodh samuh ne Italy, Germany, aur U.S. se aaveshanik taur par modern manav mein hriday rog se judi jenetik parivartan ka ek dilchasp vishleshana prastut kiya. Unhone visheshayon ki seva karne ke liye 22 mummytized vyaktiyon se DNA ka adhyayan kiya, jo alag alag bhu-geographical kshetron aur samay-avadoyon se the. 17 purvajon ko 3600 BC tak darj kiya gaya tha jabki Bolivia, Peru, Switzerland, aur Australia ke wale 1500-1900 AD ke the.

In vaigyanik ne prateek jenom ke vishesh bhaagon ko sampurn-genom sequencing data se prakashit karne ka naya tareeka istemal kiya jo ki modern manav mein atherosclerotic hriday rog se jude the. Phir, jab unhone in bhaagon ko shek kiya, vaigyanik ne prachin logon ka hriday rog vikas ke khatron ko 87 jenetik parivartan par aadharit karke nirdharit kiya jo ki 56 jenon mein map hue the - jo modern manav mein bhi achchi tarah se adhyayan ki

ye gaye the. Is tareeke se, team ne nirdharit kiya ki paanch mummytized samples mein hriday rog vikas ke liye khatra kafi adhik tha aur do ki hriday naso mein pattharana tha, jo ki saabit karta hai ki unhe pehle se hi yeh bimari thi.

Sabhi me, vaigyanik ne kaha ki unka maanna hai ki kam se kam 5,000 saal se manav jansankhya mein hriday rog phaila hua hai.

Purvajik DNA kaise kisi bhojan se jod sakti hai?
Prachin manavon ke jeevan shaili ke baare mein darshan bhi unke jenetik avasheshon se mil sakte hain. Ek aisa samagri hai teend ki ped se laava. Kuch saboot hai ki purane manushya ne teend ki ped se bhojanik samagri ko thik karne aur shayad teer ke sir ko thik karne mein vyapak roop se upayog kiya. Sampl se aaye microorganisms manushyon ke jisee swasth ke baare mein jaankaari prakat kar sakte hain jo usne chabaya tha.

Udaharan ke liye, 18 January ko ek adhyayan mein, scientists Finland, Norway, Sweden, aur Turkey se teen chabaye gaye pitch ke tukdon se prapt DNA ka vishleshan kiya jo lagbhag 9,500 saal purana tha, ek sthal se Sweden mein prapt kiya gaya tha. Pitch ke samples ko shek karne par, vaigyanik ne logo ke saath saath inflamed masoodon (periodontitis) ke vyaktiyon mein dekhi jaane waali prakritik prakritik kadi vishamta se jude jeevano ko pahchaan liya. Team ne bhi kai vanaspati aur jantu prajatiyon ke saath DNA ko milaya, jo purvajon ke bhojan ke baare mein ishara karte hain.

Purvajik DNA kya aur kya prakat kar sakta hai?
Purvajik DNA ke adhyayan bhi patthar ke upkaranon ke srishti aur vikas ke baare mein bade hint pradan kar sakte hain. 1930s mein, udaharan ke liye, researchers ne Ranis, Germany mein ek gufa khodi, jahan unhone kai prachin patthar ke upkaranon ko pehchaana. Is sthal par ek purane manushya jansankhya ka vassthav mana gaya tha, lagbhag 50,000 saal purani jab aadhunik manushya, neanderthals, aur denisovans sath mein the. To sawal yah tha ki yeh upkaran asal mein kaun banaya tha.

Is prashn mein uthe hue dharmik mein ruchi ka ek taufa ne purane gufa ko nedhe ko punah khodne ke liye prarit kiya, jab unhone kai haddi avashesh paye. Jab unhone in haddiyon se genetik saaman ka shek kiya, unhone high-throughput sequencing ka upayog kiya, jo DNA kramon ko saaf disha mein dikha raha tha ki Homo sapiens ki or ishara kar raha tha. Jab unhone radiocarbon dating ka upayog karke sampelon ki tareekh tay ki, to sampels ko lagbhag 45,000 saal purani payi gayi.

Lekhak Vishwanath Cancer Care Foundation ke seniya salahkaron aur Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ke sahayak professors hain. Sabhi ray vyaktigat hain.

image source pixabay

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

OpenAI introduces 'Sora': Create videos from text in seconds! Watch here

Is naye upkaran se prayogkartaon ko turant chhote videos banane ki anumati deta hai jab likhit aadeshon ka javab dete hain, kshetra mein gunvatta ke lie ek naya maapdand sthapit karte hain.

OpenAI, ChatGPT ke nirmanakarta, ne ek mahaan upkaran ko Sora ke naam se prastut kiya hai, ek teksto-se-video nirmata. Anya bade takaneeki companiyon jaise Google aur Meta dvaara pradarshit aise samaan takaneeki ke vipareet, Sora apne uchch gunvatta ke lie prasiddh hai.

Sora: OpenAI ka teksto-se-video nirmata
Sora, OpenAI ka naya teksto-se-video nirmata, likhit aadeshon ka javab dete hue turant chhote videos bana sakta hai. Jab ek samajik media prayogkarta ne majakiya roop se OpenAI CEO Sam Altman se nivedan kiya ki unhe ghar se nikal diya na jaye, to Altman ne unka uttar diya aur unke anurodh par ek video utpann karne ki peshkash ki. Prayogkarta ne ek bandar ko park mein shatranj khelte hue sujhaya, aur Altman ne turant Sora dvaara banayi gayi ek uchch gunvatta wali video ko share kiya.

Sora ke gun aur seemayein
Halaanki Sora abhi janta ke liye upalabdh nahi hai, yah vartaman mein red teaming ke lie prayog kiya ja raha hai AI system mein kamiyon ko pahchanne ke liye. Iske alaava, darshak kalaakaron, designers aur filmmakers apne kaam par feedback ke liye Sora ka upayog kar sakte hain. Halaanki, OpenAI ne Sora ka viksit kaise kiya gaya tha iske baare mein seemit jaankari di hai. Company svikarta hai ki Sora ko sthaanik vistar aur vishesh camera ke margon ka palan karne mein kathinaiyon ka samna kar sakti hai.

Sora ke agrani gun
Sora complex scenes jaise ki anek charitron ke saath, vibhinn prakar ke gatiyon aur sahi background vistar ke saath sanklit drishya utpann kar sakta hai. Iske alaava, yah ek video mein anek shots bana sakta hai aur sthir chitraon ko janm de sakta hai.

OpenAI dvaara bhavishya mein ki gayi vikas
OpenAI bhi un upkaranon par kaam kar raha hai jo Sora dvaara utpann ki gayi video ko nirdharit karne ke liye hain. Pichhle saal, Meta Platforms ne Emu naamak apni chitr utpann model ko sudhar karke teksto se video utpann karne aur sampadan ke gunon ko shaamil kiya.

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

Countdown begins: ISRO all set for INSAT-3DS satellite launch tomorrow - All you need to know

GSLV-F 14/INSAT 3DS mission ka launch countdown shuru ho gaya hai. Launch Shaniwar ko 5:30 pm par Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh se hoga.

ISRO (India Space Research Organisation) Saturday, February 17 ko apna meteorological satellite, INSAT-3DS, launch karne ki taiyari mein hai. Ye satellite mausam ki purvaanumaai aur aapda suchana ki kshamata ko sudharna ka lakshya rakhta hai. INSAT-3DS Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR se Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh mein GSLV F14 rocket ke saath antariksh mein bheja jayega. Launch ka samay 5:35 pm par hai.

Mission uddeshya
INSAT-3DS ka mukhya uddeshya mausam ki adhyayan ko badhana aur mausam ki purvaanumaai aur aapda suchana ke liye bhoomi aur sagar ki surface ka nigrani karna hai. Ye Bharat ki mausam ki purvaanumaai ki kshamata ko sudharta hai, jo ki pahle se upasthit INSAT-3D aur INSAT-3DR satellites ko poorak karega.

INSAT-3DS ke features
Ye satellite adhik satik mausam ki jankari pradan karne ke liye nirmit kiya gaya hai, jo Bharat ke mausam agencies ko behtar purvaanumaai pradan karne mein madad karega. Ye bhoomi aur samundar par mausam ke prakriti ko nigrani karega, aapda taiyari aur pratikriya mein sahayak hoga.

GSLV F14: The "Naughty Boy" Rocket
GSLV F14 rocket ko "naughty boy" ke naam se pukara gaya hai, kyun ki iske peechle asafaltaon ki wajah se. Iska asafalta dar 40 pratishat hai, aur isne apne pandrah udaano mein chhe mein samasyaon ka samna kiya hai. Halaanki, ISRO iske safal upagrah vyavasthapit karne ki kshamata par pura vishwas rakhti hai.

Launch kahan dekhein
INSAT-3DS ka launch ISRO ke social media platforms par live broadcast kiya jayega. Iske alawa, dekhnawaalon ko DD National ke social media aur YouTube channels par bhi is ghatna ka live coverage dekhne ko milega.

Enhanced meteorological capabilities ke saath, ye satellite desh mein mausam ki purvaanumaai aur aapda prabandhan mein sudhar karega.

image source isro

research
  • TECHNOLOGY

New WhatsApp feature to let you transfer ownership of your channel | DEETS inside

WhatsApp ek nayi suvidha par pareekshan kar raha hai jismein upayogakartaon ko Channels ki malikana adhikar transfer karne ki anumati hai, jisse unhe apne ek-tarafa prasaran upkaran ko prabandhit karne par adhik niyantran milta hai.

Meta-dvitiya sandesh prasaran anumati prapt karne wala WhatsApp ab apne Channels upkaran ke liye kuch naye suvidhaon ka pareekshan kar raha hai, jise naye updates ka ek-tarafa prasaran karne ki anumati hai. Ye updates abhi WhatsApp ke beta version mein hain aur jald hi sabhi upayogakartaon ke liye upalabdh hone ki ummeed hai.

Nayi malikana transfer suvidha
WABetaInfo ke mutabiq, sabse latest beta version (2.24.4.22) ke Android ke liye, WhatsApp ne ek nayi suvidha joda hai jo ek channel ke vartaman malik ko kisi aur ko malikana adhikar transfer karne ki anumati deti hai. Iska arth hai ki vartaman malik ek naye malik ko chun sakta hai ek yogy upayogakartaon ki soochi se aur transfer prakriya shuru kar sakta hai. Agar naya malik anurodh ko svikar karta hai, to usko channel par poorn prashasanik adhikar milenge, jismein settings aur jaankariyon ka prabandhan shamil hai.

Aur bhadak control aur laacharata
Is nayi suvidha ke saath, upayogakartaon ke paas unke channels par adhik laacharata aur niyantran hoga. Ve zaroorat anusar anya upayogakartaon ko prashasanik dayiton ko saunp sakte hain, jisse unhe channel ko hata sakte hain, anya prashasanik karmachariyon ko hata sakte hain, aur adhik kar sakte hain. Ye upayogakartiyon ko unke WhatsApp channels ko prabandhit karne ka ek suvidhajanak tareeka pradan karta hai aur surakshit haathon mein hain.

Rollout aur upalabdhata
Nayi suvidha ko vartaman mein kuch chayanit samuh ke beta pareekshakon ko dhire-dhire binaatak kiya ja raha hai. Aane wale dino mein adhik upayogakartaon ko iska upyog karne ka adhikar hoga. Upayogakarta Google Play Beta Programme ke madhyam se update tak pahunch sakte hain, aur ise ek samarthit update ke roop mein label kiya gaya hai.

Yadi kisi ne pichhle update (2.24.4.20) ko install kiya hai to kuch beta pareekshakon ko shayad pehle se hi is suvidha ka adhikar ho sakta hai. Yadi upayogakartaon ne update ko install kiya hai lekin suvidha ko nahi dekha hai, to shayad ye unke liye abhi upalabdh nahi hai.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

India is unlikely to adopt hyperloop technology for ultra high-speed trains in near future: NITI Aay

NITI Aayog Member V K Saraswat, who leads a committee evaluating Virgin Hyperloop technology in India, revealed that India is unlikely to adopt hyperloop technology for high-speed trains soon. Saraswat cited the technology's low level of maturity and limited economic viability at the moment.

Saraswat also mentioned that some foreign companies have expressed interest in introducing hyperloop technology to India. However, he emphasized that these offers were not considered viable options due to the technology's early developmental stage.

Hyperloop technology, a concept proposed by Elon Musk, involves high-speed trains operating in a vacuum within a tube. Despite a successful test run in the US in 2020, Saraswat suggested that hyperloop is still in its infancy and not a priority for India's transportation framework.

In response to a question regarding India's reliance on lithium imports, Saraswat noted that India currently depends on importing lithium-ion batteries from China due to the limited domestic production. However, he expressed optimism that in the coming year, several business houses would initiate large-scale lithium-ion battery manufacturing within India.

Regarding lithium mining, Saraswat mentioned that Indian private sector companies have established business-to-business agreements with mining facilities in countries like Chile and Argentina. This approach aims to secure a reliable supply chain for lithium, reducing India's dependence on foreign imports.

Additionally, Saraswat discussed the government's efforts to promote methanol as an alternative fuel. He mentioned successful trials involving a 15% methanol blend in diesel with the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) and Ashok Leyland, highlighting the potential of methanol as a cleaner fuel option for India.

In summary, while hyperloop technology remains a topic of interest, India currently views it as immature and economically unviable. The nation is actively working to address its reliance on lithium imports and exploring alternative fuel options like methanol.
mage Source : VIRGIN HYPERLOOP

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Meta empowers creators to launch instant games directly on Facebook: Details

Meta is unveiling a fresh approach for game creators to launch their Instant Games right on Facebook, even during the early phases of development. This move offers more freedom to game creators and allows for experimentation and user input.

Meta's New Feature: Meta, the parent company of Facebook, has introduced an innovative distribution model for Instant Games (IG), giving developers the chance to publish their games directly to Facebook users, even during the early stages of development. This move marks a notable shift from previous Quality Guidelines, which often restricted access to early-stage games on the platform.

Direct Launch for Early-Stage Games: Meta has declared this transformative initiative, outlining its dedication to establish a pathway for Instant Games developers on Facebook to release their games directly to users, irrespective of their developmental stage. Historically, early-stage games faced challenges in meeting Quality Guidelines, but this new approach eliminates such obstacles, providing developers with a broader audience.

Play Lab Tier: As part of the new distribution model, Meta is introducing the Play Lab tier. This tier is designed for games that may not have passed the Quality Review in the past. It offers these games a platform to go live, enabling them to acquire users, gather valuable feedback, and experiment with different aspects of their games. This opens doors for developers to enhance their creations while engaging with users.

Besides the Play Lab tier, Meta is also bringing in the Play Tab tier, tailored for higher-quality and high-performing games. Games in this tier will be distributed across Facebook's organic discovery experiences and will be available for promotion in editorial units. This tier aims to spotlight and support games that have demonstrated exceptional quality and popularity.

Hosting on the Facebook Play Platform: Games within the Play Lab tier will be hosted on the Facebook Play platform but will not be featured on the company's organic discovery or editorial surfaces. Nevertheless, they will still have the opportunity to create game pages and expand their player base through paid user acquisition, social discovery, and community building.

New "Facebook Stories API": Alongside the Instant Games distribution model, Meta has introduced a "Facebook Stories API" (Application Programming Interface). This API empowers developers, creators, and brands to create and share Facebook Stories directly from third-party desktop or web applications.

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Elon Musk's new AI company, xAI, set to release its first AI model tomorrow

Elon Musk's revelation about xAI's first AI model release has ignited a wave of enthusiasm and curiosity within the tech community as a select group gains access to this groundbreaking technology.

Elon Musk's xAI: Esteemed tech magnate Elon Musk recently unveiled the plans of his new artificial intelligence (AI) venture, xAI, to introduce its maiden AI model to a handpicked group. Musk chose to share this exciting news through his Twitter handle, which has stirred considerable interest not only among tech enthusiasts but also the broader audience.

In his tweet, Musk exuded high optimism regarding the capabilities of this AI, asserting that, "In some crucial aspects, it is the best that currently exists." This statement has raised questions about the potential impact and prowess of this novel AI.

User Reactions: Not surprisingly, Musk's announcement has triggered diverse reactions from the public. According to IANS, one user expressed elation about this development, recognizing it as a significant milestone in the realm of artificial intelligence. However, the user also emphasized the need to carefully consider the safety and ethical aspects of deploying advanced AI technology to avert unforeseen consequences.

Another user conveyed a mix of emotions, displaying both excitement and caution, eagerly anticipating the innovations that this new xAI AI is set to bring.

The Genesis of xAI: Elon Musk introduced xAI in July with the mission of "understanding the true nature of the universe." The venture is spearheaded by Musk himself and boasts a team of experts with extensive experience at other prominent AI players, such as OpenAI, Google Research, Microsoft Research, and Google's DeepMind.

Elon Musk's Vision: During a separate conversation with the UK's Prime Minister, Rishi Sunak, Musk shared his vision for the future of artificial intelligence. Musk envisions AI as the "most disruptive force in history," potentially rendering numerous jobs obsolete. He predicts that AI will surpass the intelligence of the smartest humans.

This conversation with the UK Prime Minister occurred following a successful AI safety summit that attracted over 100 world leaders, underscoring the growing significance of discussions regarding the responsible development and deployment of AI technology.

image source XAI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Elon Musk offers 1 billion dollars to Mark Zuckerberg for changing the name of Facebook

Elon Musk has been making headlines ever since he assumed control of Twitter, now rebranded as 'X,' due to his witty and cheeky posts on social media. Recently, he took another dig at Mark Zuckerberg and suggested that the CEO of Meta change the name of Facebook. Musk mentioned that he has a plethora of innovative ideas for the revamped platform.

Elon Musk, renowned as a business magnate and investor, is once again causing a stir in the realm of Facebook. He recently proclaimed that he would offer a staggering one billion dollars to Meta's CEO, Mark Zuckerberg, in exchange for a name change for the platform. The billionaire, who owns Tesla, SpaceX, and X, made this offer in response to a post from a satirical news source called BabylonBee. The post quoted Musk as proposing a 1-billion USD incentive for Zuckerberg to alter the social media platform's name.

Musk further endorsed the suggested name from the parody news site by affirming, 'It would be a much better name!'

The core issue here is that Musk frequently shares content and remarks on social media that are often provocative. The ongoing exchange of jibes and jests between Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg has been a topic of discussion. Musk has now encouraged Zuckerberg to rebrand Facebook, and in return, the owner of Tesla is prepared to offer a substantial sum of money to the head of Meta.

According to The BabylonBee's report, Elon Musk has proposed that Mark change Facebook's name to 'Faceboob.'

Musk is willing to part with a whopping 1 billion US dollars if Mark adopts the name 'Faceboob.' He believes that Meta's founder should seriously consider this idea as it would bring great delight to many people through the name change.

Musk also hinted at having numerous innovative concepts for the reimagined Facebook, which he intends to explore.

It is worth noting that prior to his suggestion for Facebook, Elon Musk had also proposed that Wikipedia change its name to 'Dickipedia' and offered 1 billion dollars for the change.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Instagram to bring a customisable 'AI friend' feature: All you need to know

An app researcher named Alessandro Paluzzi recently shared some exciting news on his broadcast channel about Instagram. It seems that Instagram users in India may soon have the opportunity to chat with artificial intelligence (AI) to get answers to their queries, brainstorm new ideas, discuss challenges, and more.

Instagram, the popular photo and video-sharing platform owned by Meta, is said to be working on an intriguing feature known as the 'AI friend.' This feature will allow users to create their own virtual friend with personalized characteristics.

As per the screenshots posted on X (formerly known as Twitter) by Alessandro Paluzzi, Instagram users will have the ability to engage in conversations with AI. They can seek answers to their questions, collaborate on ideas, and navigate challenges with the help of AI.

In one of his tweets, Paluzzi mentioned, "#Instagram is working on the ability to create an #AI friend," which quickly grabbed the attention of tech enthusiasts, including TechCrunch.

TechCrunch also shared some screenshots revealing that Instagram users will be able to choose the AI chatbot's gender and age. Furthermore, users can customize their AI friend's identity and personality based on their preferences. This means your AI companion can be reserved, enthusiastic, creative, witty, practical, or empowering, depending on your choices.

Alessandro's screenshots suggest that users can personalize their AI companion further by selecting specific interests that will shape the chatbot's personality. The nature of conversations can also be tailored to topics like career, DIY, education, entertainment, animals, nature, music, and more.

Once users have manually set the chatbot's age, gender, nature, and conversation points, they can choose an avatar and name for their personalized AI companion on the platform. After configuring these settings, users can initiate interactions with their AI friend with a simple click.

As for when this exciting feature will be available on Instagram for Indian users, it's still uncertain. The release of the AI friend feature may vary and evolve during the development process.

In addition to the AI friend feature, Instagram is reportedly testing another collaborative feature. This feature will enable your friends to contribute photos to your posts. Adam Mosseri, the head of Instagram, shared this development on his broadcast channel, saying, "New test on Instagram. We've just started testing a new way to invite friends to participate in your feed posts. Before posting a carousel, you can enable the option for your followers to submit photos and/or videos, which you can approve to include in the post."

Please note that these features are subject to change and may not be available to the public in India at the time of writing. Keep an eye on Instagram for future updates and releases.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Bard's real-time feature: Google's chatbot now responds as you type | Know-how

The update also includes enhancements to the 'Google it' feature, offering users additional sources to verify Bard's responses and explore information from the wider web.

Google's AI chatbot, Bard, has received an update that enables it to provide real-time responses to user queries. Instead of waiting for the response to complete, users can now view answers as they are generated. This update improves the user experience by displaying real-time responses, making interactions with Bard faster and more dynamic. As a result, users receive immediate feedback while their queries are addressed.

Skip Unhelpful Responses
If users expect that a response won't be helpful, they can use a new feature: a blue "Skip response" button. This allows users to bypass responses that don't meet their requirements.

Switch Between Response Modes
Google provides users with the flexibility to choose between two response modes: "Respond in real-time" and "Respond when complete." This feature caters to different preferences and use cases. Bard also allows users to customize the tone of responses to their liking. Users can opt for "casual" or "professional" language, depending on the context or their personal preferences.

For added reliability, users can cross-check Bard's answers against information available in Google Search. By tapping on the Google logo in the bottom menu bar, users can verify the accuracy of the responses.

Integration with Google Apps and Services
Bard now offers seamless integration with Google apps and services. This integration enables Bard to fetch relevant information from Workspace, Maps, YouTube, Google Flights, and Hotels.

Assistant with Bard Integration
Earlier this month, Google introduced Assistant with Bard, a personal assistant powered by Generative AI. This innovative combination leverages Bard's generative and reasoning capabilities with the Assistant's personalized assistance. Users can interact with Assistant with Bard through text, voice, or images, and in the coming months, this feature will be available on Android and iOS mobile devices.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

What Is JioSpace Fiber Service Unveiled At IMC'23, & How Will It Compete Against Musk's Starlink? EX

Reliance Jio, one of India's leading telecom providers, has unveiled a groundbreaking satellite-based internet service known as JioSpaceFiber. This innovative service is poised to bring high-speed broadband connectivity to previously underserved areas in India, thus expanding internet access. The demonstration of this cutting-edge technology took place at the India Mobile Congress 2023.

Broadening Digital Services Accessibility
Reliance Jio is already serving over 450 million customers with high-speed broadband and wireless internet services. In line with their commitment to making digital services accessible to every Indian household, they have introduced JioSpaceFiber alongside their existing broadband offerings, such as JioFiber and JioAirFiber. This expansion ensures that individuals and businesses across India can enjoy dependable, low-latency, and high-speed internet connectivity, regardless of their geographical location.

Enhancing Mobile Backhaul Capacity
This satellite network will also enhance mobile backhaul capacity, subsequently improving the availability and scale of Jio's True5G network. This signifies that even in the most remote corners of the country, people can benefit from advanced mobile services.

Collaboration with SES
An exceptional facet of this endeavor is the collaboration between Jio and SES, a prominent satellite operator. SES grants Jio access to state-of-the-art medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite technology. This access, facilitated by SES's O3b and new O3b mPOWER satellites, establishes Jio as the exclusive provider of this groundbreaking technology in India. This technology offers scalable and cost-effective broadband solutions across the entire nation, distinguished by its unparalleled reliability and service flexibility.

Connecting Remote Locations
To showcase the extensive reach of JioSpaceFiber, four of India's remotest locations have already been linked:

1. Gir, Gujarat
2. Korba, Chhattisgarh
3. Nabarangpur, Odisha
4. ONGC-Jorhat, Assam

This accomplishment underscores the service's capacity to bridge the digital divide in underserved regions and deliver high-speed broadband where it is most needed.

Promoting Digital Transformation Nationwide
Jio's introduction of JioSpaceFiber aligns with the Indian government's Digital India initiative. The objective is to provide multiple gigabits per second of throughput to any location in India, thereby contributing to the digital transformation of even the most remote parts of the country.

Enhancing Connectivity Across India
Reliance Jio's existing broadband services, including JioFiber and JioAirFiber, in conjunction with the new JioSpaceFiber, guarantee that consumers and businesses can access reliable, high-speed, and low-latency internet and entertainment services, regardless of their geographic location in India.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Tata Group to manufacture Apple iPhones for both Indian and global markets, confirms Rajeev Chandras

Rajeev Chandrasekhar, India's Minister of State for Information Technology, recently made an exciting announcement regarding the manufacturing of Apple iPhones in India. Tata Group will now take charge of producing Apple iPhones, not only for the domestic market but also for international markets. Chandrasekhar expressed his appreciation to Wistron for their past contributions and commended Apple's progress in establishing a global supply chain in India, with Indian companies leading the way.

In a tweet on the X platform (formerly Twitter), Chandrasekhar conveyed his congratulations to the Tata team for taking over the responsibilities previously managed by Wistron. He also thanked Wistron for their contributions and praised Apple for building a global supply chain in India with Indian companies at the forefront.

Chandrasekhar emphasized the Indian government's full support for the growth of Global Indian Electronics companies, which, in turn, will support global electronic brands looking to make India their trusted manufacturing and talent partner. This aligns with the goal of making India a global electronics powerhouse, as envisioned by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

This significant development was accompanied by a press release from Wistron, wherein they announced their board's approval for their subsidiaries to engage in a share purchase agreement with Tata Electronics Private Limited (TEPL) to sell their entire indirect stake in Wistron InfoComm Manufacturing (India) Private Limited. Upon the completion of the necessary agreements and approvals, Tata Group will become the first Indian company to manufacture iPhones in India.

It's worth noting that Tata Group, a 155-year-old conglomerate with diverse businesses, has been actively exploring opportunities in electronics production and e-commerce in recent years. They already produce iPhone chassis, the metal framework of the device, in their expansive facility located in Tamil Nadu.

This development is a testament to India's growing importance in the global electronics manufacturing and exports industry. It has been facilitated by the visionary PLI (production-linked incentive) scheme introduced in 2021. The scheme aims to boost domestic manufacturing, create employment opportunities, and promote exports in various sectors, including electronics manufacturing, textiles, medical devices, automobiles, and more, with a substantial allocation of ₹1.97 lakh crore.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Sundar Pichai emphasizes Google's ongoing AI investment strategy

Sundar Pichai, the CEO of Alphabet and Google, is emphasizing the company's commitment to advancing artificial intelligence (AI) while managing costs effectively. Google's primary focus is on making AI more accessible and valuable, with a significant project called the Search Generative Experience (SGE) at its core. The SGE integrates generative AI into Google Search, allowing users to access extensive information and receive comprehensive responses.

The company is expanding the availability of the SGE to India and Japan after receiving positive user feedback, with plans for further expansion to support various languages and regions.

Advertising remains a crucial part of Google's new Search experience. Pichai underlines the user-friendly nature of ads, which offer valuable options for taking action and connecting with businesses. Google is exploring new ad formats native to the SGE that leverage Generative AI to provide relevant, high-quality ads tailored to different stages of the user's search journey.

Pichai also mentions the progress of Google's AI chatbot, Bard, which can seamlessly integrate with various Google apps and services. Bard now offers relevant information from Google Workspace, Maps, YouTube, and Google Flights and Hotels. The "Google it" feature has been enhanced to provide additional sources for evaluating Bard's responses and exploring web-based information.

Google recently introduced Assistant with Bard, an AI-powered personal assistant that combines generative and reasoning capabilities with Assistant's personalized assistance. Users can interact with Bard through text, voice, or images, with plans to extend its availability to Android and iOS mobile devices.

AI plays a significant role in data analysis, and Google Cloud is recognized for its unified platform capable of handling structured and unstructured data. Duet AI, within Google Workspace, has gained strong adoption among thousands of companies and over a million trusted testers.

Alphabet reported consolidated revenues of $76.7 billion in the third quarter, representing an 11% increase in both reported and constant currency. The growth is primarily attributed to the Search platform. While total cost of revenues increased by 7% to $33.2 billion, YouTube advertising revenues reached $8 billion, driven by brand advertising and direct response efforts.

In summary, Google is committed to advancing its AI investments and using generative AI to enhance user experiences across its platform.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Amazon introduces face, fingerprint, and PIN sign-ins for enhanced security

Amazon Enhances User Security and Convenience with Passkey Feature

Amazon is taking a significant stride in bolstering user security and convenience by introducing passkey support for web browsers and iOS mobile shopping apps. This innovative feature empowers customers to establish passkeys in their Amazon settings, allowing them to leverage familiar authentication methods like facial recognition, fingerprint scanning, or device PIN for account access.

Dave Treadwell, the Senior Vice President of E-commerce at Amazon, clarified that this initiative is designed to provide customers with both ease of use and heightened security in their Amazon interactions. While traditional passwords remain relevant, Amazon perceives passkeys as a promising step towards a more secure and password-free online environment.

This new feature is currently accessible to all Amazon users via web browsers. Furthermore, it is gradually being introduced in the iOS Amazon Shopping app, with plans for extending support to the Android version in the near future.

How Passkey Works

Passkeys offer a distinct advantage over conventional passwords as they are less susceptible to being written down or guessed, thereby reducing the risk of unauthorized access. When customers employ a passkey on their device, it serves as compelling evidence that they possess and can unlock the device, eliminating the need to remember complex passwords or easily discoverable personal information like names and birthdays.

Customers can sign in to apps and websites using passkeys in a manner similar to unlocking their devices, whether through a fingerprint scan, facial recognition, or lock screen PIN. This approach furnishes an additional layer of security compared to passwords and one-time codes sent via text messages, which are susceptible to phishing attacks.

Amazon's adoption of passkey support aligns with the broader industry trend of fortifying security while streamlining user authentication. This development marks a significant stride towards a safer and more user-friendly online shopping experience.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Deadline Extended For Stakeholder Comments On TRAI's Draft Telecommunication Mobile Number Portabili

The latest update on the Draft Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability (Ninth Amendment) Regulations for 2023, inviting feedback from relevant parties, is now available on the TRAI website (www.trai.gov.in).

New Delhi: The deadline for receiving comments on the Draft Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability (Ninth Amendment) Regulations for 2023 by TRAI has been extended to the following month.

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) unveiled the Draft Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability (Ninth Amendment) Regulations for 2023 on 27th September 2023. The original due date for written input from stakeholders was set for 25th October 2023.

In response to a request from an industry association for an extended comment submission period, it has been decided to postpone the final date for submitting written feedback until 8th November 2023, as stated in an official announcement.

"For comments, please forward them to Akhilesh Kumar Trivedi, Advisor (Network, Spectrum & Licensing), TRAI, ideally in electronic format at advmn@trai.gov.in. If you need any clarifications or additional information, you can reach Akhilesh Kumar Trivedi, Advisor (Network, Spectrum & Licensing), TRAI, at Telephone Number +91-11-23210481," a press release from the Ministry of Communications explained.

The Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability Regulations for 2009 (8 of 2009), established by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, set out the regulatory framework for Mobile Number Portability (MNP) within the nation. To date, eight amendments have been made to the Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability Regulations for 2009.

The Draft Telecommunication Mobile Number Portability (Ninth Amendment) Regulations for 2023, which seeks input from stakeholders, is now accessible on TRAI's website (www.trai.gov.in).

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Flight Test Is A Great Success For Gaganyaan Mission: Former ISRO Scientist Nambi Narayanan

The Gaganyaan project has a vision of establishing human spaceflight capabilities through launching a crew of three individuals into a 400 km orbit for a 3-day mission, returning them safely to Earth by landing in Indian waters.

Thiruvananthapuram: Former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) scientist Nambi Narayanan stated on Saturday that achieving 'TV-D1' (Test Vehicle Development Flight 1) marks a significant milestone in the Gaganyaan Mission's initial phase. "This is a notable achievement as it represents the first step towards the Gaganyaan project. This launch demonstrates ISRO's ability to assess, validate, and qualify their escape module designs," as Nambi Narayanan conveyed to ANI.

Furthermore, the scientist emphasised, "This module holds utmost importance because, throughout the process, we are responsible for human lives, ensuring the safe return of astronauts without any complications. Rigorous checks are being conducted."

Several parameters were monitored, and though there was an initial hiccup attributed to a minor monitoring system error, it concluded successfully. This marks just the initial phase; there is still a long journey ahead, he added.

"We must exercise extreme caution in these endeavours since projects of this nature have multiple applications. We must ensure that procedures are executed correctly. I consider this a significant achievement," Narayanan further remarked.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi also conveyed his congratulations to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for successfully completing a pivotal test in India's inaugural human spaceflight programme, Gaganyaan.

Earlier today, former ISRO chief G Madhavan Nair expressed that the prosperous launch of ISRO's unmanned test flight under 'Mission Gaganyaan' represents a "noteworthy milestone" for India's efforts to send humans into space in the near future. "I am genuinely pleased to hear that ISRO's TV-D1 mission has been successfully accomplished today..." Nair conveyed to ANI today.

Andhra Pradesh Governor S Abdul Nazeer also extended his felicitations to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) scientists for their commendable achievement with 'TV-D1' in the Gaganyaan Mission.

The objectives of the TV-D1 launch within the mission included the flight demonstration and evaluation of Test Vehicle subsystems, a demonstration and evaluation of the Crew Escape System encompassing various separation systems, examination of crew module characteristics, and showcasing the deceleration system at higher altitudes, as well as its recovery.

The Gaganyaan project envisions human spaceflight capabilities by launching a crew of three individuals into a 400 km orbit for a 3-day mission, ensuring their safe return to Earth by landing in Indian waters. This initiative positions India as the fourth nation to execute a manned spaceflight mission, following the United States, Russia, and China.

Capitalising on the successes of Indian space ventures, including recent missions like Chandrayan-3 and Aditya L1, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has directed that India should now aim for new and ambitious goals. These aspirations include establishing the 'Bharatiya Antariksha Station' (Indian Space Station) by 2035 and sending the first Indian to the Moon by 2040.

source ANI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Google Maps to offer metro ticket booking in India: Here's how

In the coming months, folks in India will be able to conveniently book metro tickets right through the Google Maps app. This means that your travel planning experience is about to get a lot smoother and more interconnected.

Google is really stepping up its game in India, allowing all you users to book metro tickets directly using the highly popular Google Maps app. This exciting development is part of Google's deepening collaboration with the Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC), which is India's open e-commerce network. At a recent Google for India event, they spilled the beans on this upcoming feature, promising that Google users will soon be able to book metro tickets right within the Google Maps app, thanks to their partnership with ONDC.

Now, let's dive into Google's collaboration with ONDC. Bikram Singh Bedi, who's the big boss as the Managing Director of Google Cloud India, made it known that this new feature will be available through buyer apps that are nicely integrated into the ONDC platform. Google and ONDC have already made quite a splash together. They even launched an accelerator program for sellers who are joining the open network. This program aimed to make ONDC infrastructure and core APIs easily accessible and came with a sweet $25,000 grant for eligible organizations that hopped on the network bandwagon.

To show their commitment to supporting digital commerce in India, Google introduced an all-India hackathon for startups and developers who are working on solutions for the open network. What's more, Google Cloud's generative AI tools are now up for grabs for both buyers and sellers stepping into the ONDC ecosystem.

But it's not just Google going solo; they stressed the significance of partnerships in this grand endeavor. They pointed out that working together with different stakeholders, such as the government, the financial ecosystem, startups, and others, is vital to bring these initiatives to life.

In addition to this, WhatsApp, which is owned by Meta, has also come into the picture with a similar feature for metro ticket bookings in Bengaluru and Delhi. They're offering end-to-end ticket booking and payment support in collaboration with city metro train corporations.

The Google annual event in India had even more exciting announcements in store. They unveiled new lending options for Google Pay users and merchants, as well as several updates to their generative AI tools. On top of all that, Google has plans to kick off the manufacturing of Pixel phones right here in India. They're starting with the Pixel 8 series, which is a big move to reinforce their presence in the Indian market.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

How to use dual WhatsApp accounts on one device: A step-by-step guide

The Dual WhatsApp Account feature is here to resolve these issues by enabling users to effortlessly switch between accounts within the app. This marks a significant improvement for individuals who need to handle both personal and professional WhatsApp accounts on a single device.

WhatsApp, which is under the ownership of Meta, is all set to introduce a handy new feature, making it easier for users to access multiple accounts on a lone device. This feature, known as the "Dual WhatsApp Account" feature, was officially announced by Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg on Facebook and is anticipated to be rolled out in the days to come.

At present, users who need to manage multiple WhatsApp accounts are left with no choice but to use an extra phone or tablet or engage in the cumbersome process of frequently logging in and out of accounts on a solitary device.

To make the most of this feature, users will need a second phone number, which could either be a physical SIM card or an e-SIM number. This implies that your device should support either multi-SIM functionality or e-SIM compatibility. Lacking a second phone number will make it impossible to set up a secondary WhatsApp account on a solitary device, as WhatsApp typically sends the one-time passcode for verification via SMS.

Let's take a step-by-step look at how to establish and employ multiple WhatsApp accounts on one device:

Ensure your WhatsApp app is up-to-date with the latest version.

Launch the app and access the Settings menu using the three-dot icon situated in the upper left corner.

Within the Settings, you will notice a small arrow located next to your name.

Tap on it and choose "Add account."

Input your second phone number and validate it using the code received through SMS or a call.

Once it's authenticated and set up, you can conveniently switch between accounts by selecting the arrow adjacent to your name.

Choose the desired account from the provided options.

This feature empowers users to tailor privacy and notification settings separately for each account. Moreover, users can independently enable other features such as muting or archiving conversations, erasing messages, or obstructing particular contacts for each account.

The Dual WhatsApp Account feature is poised to significantly simplify the lives of users who manage multiple WhatsApp accounts, such as one for personal use and another for professional purposes, all on a solitary device.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

No more 3rd-party cookies: Google Drive changes download policy from January 2

Earlier this year, Google made an announcement regarding the termination of support for "Drive for desktop" on Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012, and all 32-bit versions of Windows. Nevertheless, individuals using a 32-bit Windows version can still access Google Drive via a web browser.

Google has revealed a significant modification to its widely used cloud storage service, Google Drive. Commencing from January 2, 2024, users will no longer need to activate third-party cookies for file downloads. This change aligns with the broader industry trend of phasing out third-party cookies to enhance user privacy, a move already undertaken by browsers such as Google Chrome.

This decision is part of Google's effort to disable third-party cookies by default in its Chrome browser, reflecting similar measures adopted by Mozilla and Apple, all with the goal of enhancing online privacy standards.

This transition is poised to have a positive impact on the convenience, security, and privacy of Drive users. Specifically, this change will affect both Google Workspace clients and individual users with personal Google accounts.

For individuals whose workflows rely on Drive's download URLs or those who use applications dependent on Drive's download URLs, an adjustment will be necessary by January 2. Google recommends transitioning to the Drive and Docs publishing processes to ensure a seamless experience.

When handling Workspace files, including Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Forms, users are urged to make use of the Google Docs publishing URL for a smooth download process.

Additionally, Google has introduced a valuable feature known as "search chips" for Drive. This feature empowers users to efficiently filter their files based on criteria such as file type, owner, and last modified date directly within the web application, simplifying the search process. This enhancement is designed to further enhance the overall user experience within Google Drive.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Gaganyaan: ISRO to launch first development flight of test vehicle on Oct 21 | Know where to watch

The Test Vehicle Development Flight (TV-D1) is aimed at testing the crew module (CM) that will carry Indian astronauts during the human spaceflight late next year. Find out how and where to watch on test day.

ISRO has stated that it will initiate the unmanned flight tests for the Gaganyaan human spaceflight mission by launching a test vehicle at 8 am on 21st October from the Sriharikota spaceport.

It has been mentioned that this will be a brief mission, and the visibility from the Launch View Gallery (LVG) will be limited.

The Gaganyaan project envisions demonstrating ISRO's human spaceflight capability by launching a human crew into an orbit of 400 km and safely returning them to Earth by landing in the Indian sea waters. The Test Vehicle Development Flight (TV-D1) is intended to test the crew module (CM) that will transport Indian astronauts during the human spaceflight late next year.

How and where can you view the test? "TV-D1 Flight Test: The test is scheduled for 21st October 2023, at 0800 Hrs. IST from the First launchpad at SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota. It will be a brief mission, and visibility from the Launch View Gallery (LVG) will be limited," ISRO posted on X, formerly Twitter.

The TV-D1 test flight involves launching the unmanned crew module into outer space, bringing it back to Earth, and recovering it after touchdown in the Bay of Bengal.

"Students and the Public can witness the launch from LVG at SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota, by registering at https://lvg.shar.gov.in/VSCREGISTRATION/index.jsp Registration will commence on 17th October 2023, at 18:00 Hrs. Latest updates will also be provided in that link," ISRO added.

What did ISRO chief say about the test? ISRO Chief S Somanath said, "We are scheduling this launch on 21st October. This is the testing of the crew escape system using a new rocket called a test vehicle. It's a liquid engine-powered rocket. On top of that, we have the crew module and crew escape system..."

Discussing the meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi earlier today to assess the progress of the Gaganyaan Mission and outline the future of India's space exploration endeavours, Somanath said that the Prime Minister talked about India's plans for the future.

"PM Modi told us about the plans for the future. He said that we have to launch a man on the moon in 2040, there has to be the first human space flight. He also spoke of the Indian Space Station. We have to continue the Chandrayaan Mission and Gaganyaan Mission. So, we have to make a new rocket. There was a presentation on all of these. It is a matter of joy that he has endorsed all of these," he said.

ISRO chief details TV-D1 test flight Somanath on Saturday said that three more test vehicle missions would be launched under the Gaganyaan programme after the TV-D1 test flight on 21st October.

"The first test vehicle flight (of the Gaganyaan mission) will be conducted on 21st October. After that, we have planned for three more test missions, D2, D3, D4. We will hold thorough tests during the test flight sequence," Somanath said.

According to ISRO, the test vehicle is a single-stage liquid rocket developed for this abort mission.

The payloads consist of the Crew Module (CM) and Crew Escape System (CES) with their fast-acting solid motors, along with CM fairing (CMF) and Interface Adapters.

"The Crew Escape System with Crew Module will be separated from the Test Vehicle at an altitude of about 17 km. Subsequently, the abort sequence will be executed autonomously commencing with the separation of the CES and deployment of the series of parachutes, finally culminating in the safe touchdown of CM in the sea, about 10 km from the coast of Sriharikota," ISRO said.

The crew module is where the astronauts will be contained in a pressurised Earth-like atmospheric condition during the Gaganyaan mission.

source ISRO

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  • TECHNOLOGY

ISRO To Conduct Crucial Test For Gaganyaan On Saturday, Check Details

In New Delhi, ISRO is gearing up for the Flight Test Vehicle Abort Mission, a crucial aspect of its ambitious Gaganyaan human space mission. The mission is scheduled to take place this Saturday, between 7 am and 9 am, as confirmed by the space agency in a recent post on X.

The Test Vehicle, a single-stage liquid rocket specifically developed for this abort mission, carries payloads including the crew module (CM) and crew escape systems (CES), among other components.

This flight test is designed to simulate an abort scenario during the ascent trajectory. At an altitude of approximately 17 km, the crew escape systems with crude modules will be separated from the test vehicle. Following this separation, an autonomous abort sequence will initiate, involving the deployment of a series of parachutes and culminating in the safe landing of the crew module in the sea, roughly 10 km from the coast of Sriharikota.

The crew module, after undergoing integration and extensive electrical testing at ISRO's Bengaluru facility, was dispatched to Sriharikota on August 13. This test is a significant milestone for the Gaganyaan program, as it represents the integration of a near-complete system for a flight test. The success of this test flight will pave the way for subsequent qualification tests and unmanned missions, ultimately leading to the inaugural Gaganyaan mission with Indian astronauts.

ISRO Chief S. Somanath mentioned that there would be at least three more tests of a similar nature in the near future.

The Gaganyaan project aims to demonstrate India's human spaceflight capabilities by launching a crew of three members into a 400 km orbit for a 3-day mission and safely bringing them back to Earth, landing in Indian sea waters. If successful, this program will position India as the fourth country to accomplish a manned spaceflight mission, following the United States, Russia, and China.

A vital aspect of the Gaganyaan mission is the deployment of drogue parachutes, which are essential for stabilizing the crew module and reducing its velocity to a safe level during re-entry.

On August 23, India celebrated a historic achievement when the Chandrayaan-3 lander module successfully landed on the moon's South Pole. This made India the fourth country, after the US, China, and Russia, to achieve this remarkable feat. It marked the end of the disappointment stemming from the Chandrayaan-2 crash landing four years earlier.

After landing, the Vikram lander and the Pragyan rover executed various tasks on the lunar surface, including identifying the presence of sulphur and other minor elements, recording temperature data, and monitoring their surroundings.

Following the successful Chandrayaan-3 mission, India launched its first solar mission, Aditya-L1, on September 2. The spacecraft has completed four earth-bound maneuvers and a Trans-Lagrangean Point 1 Insertion (TL1I) maneuver, successfully escaping Earth's gravitational influence.

In a recent development, the Aditya-L1 spacecraft performed a trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) lasting approximately 16 seconds, which was essential to maintain its intended path. This marks another significant milestone in India's space exploration endeavors.
image source ANI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

India among the first to test Google's Desktop Discover Feed for enhanced search experience

Google is presently running tests for a Discover Feed feature on its desktop homepage in India. This feature aims to provide users with helpful content such as news headlines, weather forecasts, sports scores, and stock information. Even though the Discover Feed has been accessible on Google's mobile homepage, this marks the first instance of it being tried out on the desktop version. Lara Levin, a spokesperson from Google, confirmed the testing in India and indicated that if it proves successful, it may be extended to desktop users across the globe in the future.

This development holds significant importance, especially in India, where Google's homepage receives a substantial amount of traffic. The Discover Feed was initially introduced on Google's mobile homepage in the United States in 2018 and has since been made available worldwide. This feature not only assists users in staying up-to-date with news and related articles but also amplifies the engagement and informativeness of Google Search.

However, it's worth noting that not everyone may welcome this update, as it could potentially clutter Google's typically clean homepage. Currently, Google doesn't provide users with an option to opt out of the new Discover Feed.

It's also important to mention that this experimental interface from Google bears a resemblance to what Microsoft offers on its Bing search engine, which already boasts an extensive list of news stories and information. Unlike Google, Microsoft allows users to personalize their homepage and decide whether to enable the news feed.

In addition to this development, Google has recently introduced new features for its Search Generative Experience (SGE), including the capability to generate images from text prompts. This function is similar to Bing's Image Creator, which was unveiled a few months ago.

In essence, Google is simplifying tasks for users through AI-driven features like the Search Generative Experience (SGE) to enhance the search experience. SGE is an innovative search engine with AI capabilities designed to provide more comprehensive responses to user queries. This development reflects Google's ongoing efforts to make its services more interactive and user-friendly.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Decoding UPI Credit: From How It Works To Its Benefit - Here's A To Z About It

A few months ago, the UPI System was only used for transferring deposited funds.

New Delhi: Picture this – you're getting closer to the end of the month, and your savings are dwindling. No need to fret because you might soon have a financial superhero on your side! It's none other than the Unified Payments Interface, or UPI, and think of it as a pre-approved safety cushion for your finances.

Imagine it as a secret stash of money you can tap into when the need arises. When you're out shopping or making payments, this magical credit line can come to your rescue.

Let's dive deep into how it operates and break down each aspect of it.

What Is Credit on UPI? Not too long ago, the UPI System was only used for transferring deposited funds. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) recently declared that the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) System will now include pre-approved credit lines provided by banks for transactions.

RBI's Decision On April 6, 2023, the Reserve Bank recommended expanding the use of the Unified Payments Interface by allowing transfers to and from pre-approved credit lines at banks.

What Can You Link to UPI? At present, UPI can be linked to savings accounts, overdraft accounts, prepaid wallets, and credit cards.

UPI Transactions Currently, UPI transactions can occur between bank deposit accounts and are occasionally facilitated by prepaid devices like wallets.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Microsoft Announces New AI Assistant 'Copilot' To Help In Daily Tasks - Check Launch Date, Features,

New Delhi: Microsoft has unveiled its highly anticipated AI assistant, 'Copilot,' which is set to function as an everyday AI companion. This chatbot will seamlessly incorporate the knowledge and intelligence of the internet, work-related data, and your current activities on your PC to provide enhanced assistance.

Think of it as an assisting hand that will be available within Windows 11, Microsoft 365, and in web browsers like Edge and Bing.

When can we expect its release?
The company will commence the rollout of Copilot in its preliminary version, as part of the complimentary Windows 11 update, starting from September 26.

Here are some exciting upcoming developments:
Microsoft has announced that the next Windows 11 update will introduce more than 150 new features, extending the capabilities of Copilot and introducing fresh AI-powered experiences to applications such as Paint, Photos, Clipchamp, and more, directly on your Windows PC.

Bing will now support the latest DALL.E 3 model from OpenAI, offering more personalized search results based on your search history. Additionally, it will provide an innovative AI-driven shopping experience and updates to Bing Chat Enterprise, enhancing its mobility and visual appeal.

Microsoft 365 Copilot will become accessible to enterprise customers on November 1, 2023, along with Microsoft 365 Chat, a novel AI assistant poised to revolutionize your work routine.

Here's a glimpse of the latest enhancements in the Windows 11 update:
Copilot in Windows (in preview) empowers you to accomplish tasks more swiftly and with less mental strain, simplifying tasks that were once complex.

The Snipping Tool now offers more versatile options for capturing content from your screen. With this update, you can extract specific text content from an image to paste into another application, or easily safeguard sensitive information using text redaction via text actions on the post-capture screen.

The new Outlook for Windows enables you to manage and synchronize multiple accounts, including Gmail, Yahoo, iCloud, and more, all within a single application.

Clipchamp, now equipped with auto compose, provides suggestions for scenes, automatic edits, and narratives based on your images and footage. This allows you to effortlessly create and edit videos for sharing with family, friends, and on social media like a seasoned professional.

Paint has received a significant AI-driven boost for drawing and digital creation, featuring background removal, layer support, and a preview of Cocreator, which leverages generative AI to enhance the Paint app's capabilities.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Efforts On To Wake Up Chandrayaan-3 From Sleep Mode, No Contact Yet With Vikram Lander, Pragyan Rove

Chandrayaan-3: The Indian space agency has mentioned that there have been no signals received from the Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. Nonetheless, they are persistently working towards establishing contact.

NEW DELHI: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) declared on Friday that they are putting in all efforts to reconnect with the Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover to rouse the Chandrayaan-3 mission from its ''sleep mode.'' The esteemed Indian space agency has also confirmed that they have not picked up any signals from the Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. Nevertheless, the attempts to establish communication will continue.

“Chandrayaan-3 Mission: We have been striving to reestablish communication with the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to determine their wake-up status. Up till now, no signals have been received from them. Our efforts to make contact will persist,” ISRO stated on X (formerly Twitter).

After a 40-day voyage through space, the Chandrayaan-3 lander, 'Vikram', made a successful landing on August 23 at the previously unexplored lunar South Pole, marking India as the first country to achieve this milestone. After traveling more than 100 meters on the lunar surface from the landing point of the Vikram lander, known as the Shiv Shakti Point, the Pragyan Rover was securely parked and set into ''sleep mode'' on September 2.

India has also joined the exclusive club of nations, which includes the US, Russia, and China, who have accomplished a successful lunar landing mission. The Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft safely deployed the Vikram lander on the lunar surface, achieving a horizontal position before landing.

Providing further insight into the reawakening process, former ISRO scientist Tapan Mishra mentioned that even if the rover doesn't reactivate and the lander functions, it would be considered a ''miracle.''

“Initially, the Chandrayaan lander rover was designed for just 14 days of operation. It is expected that the temperature will plummet to -140 degrees Celsius or even lower, reaching as low as -200 degrees Celsius at the Southern pole. At such extreme temperatures, plastic materials, carbon power materials, or electronics cannot endure; they will break. However, I am optimistic that ISRO must have implemented robust thermal management measures,” Mishra informed news agency ANI in Kolkata.

He added, “If they achieve success in thermal management, if ISRO's design proves effective, and when the lunar daytime commences, all the payloads on the lander and the rover may become operational. Even if the rover remains dormant and the lander functions, it would indeed be a remarkable achievement.”

Mishra emphasized that if it survives one lunar night, it can endure many more lunar nights. “And if this occurs, we will belong to a league that can operate the lunar lander and rover throughout the year. If it survives one lunar night, I am confident it can function for six months to a year. That would be a significant achievement,” he stated.

The spacecraft was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh’s Sriharikota on July 14.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Indian engineering student builds AI model for real-time sign language translation

An Indian engineering student has crafted a groundbreaking AI model capable of converting American Sign Language (ASL) into English phrases.

This innovative AI system, developed by Priyanjali Gupta, a student at Vellore Institute of Technology, can proficiently identify and translate six fundamental ASL signs such as 'Hello,' 'I Love You,' 'Thank You,' 'Please,' 'Yes,' and 'No.'

Gupta harnessed the power of the TensorFlow Object Detection API and employed transfer learning with the ssd_mobilenet model to construct her AI marvel. She collected ASL gestures via a webcam, laying the foundation for her AI model. When questioned about the challenges she faced while creating a dedicated deep learning model for sign language recognition, Gupta candidly acknowledged the complexity of the task.

In a comment on a LinkedIn post, Gupta shared, "You are absolutely right; there's a long, long way to go to develop a flawless model that can be practically applied. Hopefully, we'll witness this in our lifetime."

Gupta's AI creation serves as a means for people to transcend communication barriers, offering a more accessible avenue to connect with the world. She has generously shared her project and code on her GitHub page, contributing to the greater good.

Photo Credit: REUTERS

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Explained | Why is the government pushing for regulatory mechanisms for OTT services?

Why is the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India seeking opinions on the selective banning of OTT services like WhatsApp, Facebook, and others? Why are Telecom Service Providers advocating for regulation? Does a ban conflict with net neutrality principles?

The story unfolds as follows: On July 7, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) called for feedback on a consultation paper regarding the regulation of over-the-top (OTT) communication services. The paper also discusses the possibility of selectively banning these services. With most stakeholders having submitted their responses by the September 1 deadline, it is likely that the TRAI will issue guidelines soon, determining whether OTT services should be subject to regulation or allowed to continue as is.

So, what led to this discussion? The debate surrounding the selective banning of OTT services stemmed from a notice issued by a Parliamentary Standing Committee to the Department of Telecom (DoT). This was in response to concerns arising from these platforms, which have a wide-reaching impact.

It's essential to clarify that the consultation paper solely addresses OTT communication services like WhatsApp, Signal, Meta, Google Meet, Zoom, and others. It does not cover content-based OTTs like Netflix and Amazon Prime, as content regulation falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB) rather than the TRAI.

Additionally, the TRAI has called upon stakeholders to define OTT and provide suggestions regarding cost-sharing arrangements between Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) and OTT services.

Now, let's explore the conflict between TSPs and OTTs. Telecom Service Providers argue that OTTs should be regulated and charged because they rely on the infrastructure established by operators over the years. Currently, they operate without such regulations.

According to the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI), representing telecom giants like Jio, Airtel, and Vodafone Idea, "OTT communication services have eroded telcos' revenues. These platforms offer a range of services, including multimedia messaging, instant messaging, and voice and video calls, over the internet. This reduces the need for traditional telecom services, such as voice calls and text messages, leading to a significant drop in telecom companies' revenue streams."

COAI asserts, "OTT communication service providers do not contribute financially to the government and do not invest in building network infrastructure in the country. They benefit from TSP-funded networks without contributing to the establishment and maintenance of digital infrastructure for access networks."

What is the proposed solution? COAI demands a policy framework that ensures large OTT service providers contribute fairly to telecom network operators based on criteria such as the number of subscribers or data usage. This contribution would compensate for increased data demands and support network expansion, ultimately benefitting the government financially.

Similarly, the Internet Service Providers Association of India suggests that if OTT services are substitutable services offered by licensed service providers, they should be subject to the same rules as telecom services, whether provided on an operator's network or over the internet.

But not everyone agrees with these proposals. The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) argues that cost-sharing models, where the sending party network pays (SPNP) the network operator, would effectively charge consumers twice for the same service. This would increase the cost of accessing free or affordable content and contradict the principles of net neutrality, which call for network neutrality in transmitting all information.

The Internet Freedom Foundation also expresses concerns about the idea of selectively banning OTT services.

So, why would someone argue for banning OTT services? COAI suggests that licensing OTT communication services would make it easier to implement location-based access restrictions, thus giving the government more control. They propose source-level blocking to achieve desired outcomes without significant complications.

On the contrary, IAMAI believes that additional regulations for OTT services are unnecessary, and a selective banning framework is not required. The Broadband India Forum (BIF) firmly opposes selective bans, as they argue that OTT services are already adequately regulated under existing laws such as the IT Act, 2000, and the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

In conclusion, the TRAI's consultation paper has sparked a lively debate about the regulation and potential banning of OTT communication services, with Telecom Service Providers and OTT service providers advocating different positions. The outcome of this debate will likely have significant implications for the future of digital communication in India.

Photo Credit: REUTERS

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  • TECHNOLOGY

23 private companies in race for SSLV technology transfer from ISRO

It is, perhaps, the first-ever instance where a space agency anywhere in the world has handed over the complete design of a launch vehicle to the private sector.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is set to enable the transfer of technology (ToT) for the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) to a private company.

Back in July, the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe), which serves as the primary agency for boosting India's space economy by actively involving the private sector, issued an Expression of Interest (EoI) for the technology transfer of SSLV to Indian industries.

On September 14, IN-SPACe Chairman Pawan Goenka announced that 23 companies had submitted applications for the ToT.

Speaking at the International Conference on Space 2023, organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Mr. Goenka stated, “Regarding SSLV’s ToT, we are handing over the launch vehicle lock, stock, and barrel, as they say, completely into the hands of the private sector. It is, perhaps, the first-ever instance where a space agency anywhere in the world has transferred the full design of a launch vehicle to the private sector. We received applications from 23 companies for the ToT, but we will only be able to grant it to one company.”

The deadline for proposal submissions in response to the EOI is September 25. The screening and identification of potential bidders will take place on October 30.

SSLV is a 3-stage launch vehicle with the capability to launch approximately a 500kg satellite into a 500-km planar orbit. According to ISRO, SSLV's key features include affordability, quick turnaround time, flexibility in accommodating multiple satellites, on-demand launch feasibility, and minimal launch infrastructure requirements.

Mr. Goenka mentioned that in recent weeks, expectations from ISRO and the Indian space ecosystem as a whole have risen following the successful soft-landing of Chandrayaan-3’s lander on the Moon.

“These past few weeks have been remarkable, starting with the successful Chandrayaan-3 soft landing on the Moon, Aditya L-1 launch, and the G-20 summit. With Chandrayaan-3, we have achieved something extraordinary, which we haven't seen in a long time. It has, in a way, added more responsibility to the space sector. Now, the expectations from the Indian space sector have increased significantly, not just from ISRO but from everyone in the space ecosystem,” Mr. Goenka said.

IN-SPACe is actively working on creating comprehensive infrastructure for industries to support manufacturing.

“We are in the process of establishing plug-and-play infrastructure for industries. We are on the verge of entering into a Memorandum of Understanding with one State and collaborating with another State,” Mr. Goenka added.

source The Hindu

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Explained | What is arXiv, and why is it still relevant for scientific research?

Around 2015, the machine learning community in India also embraced arXiv with great enthusiasm.

The background: The science and technology community has long been accustomed to reading research papers that are yet to undergo peer review. These papers, known as preprints, help scientists stay updated with the latest findings. This practice began over six decades ago when two biochemists and an administrator at the National Institute of Health (NIH) developed a method for researchers to share their early work with peers. Initially, this sharing was primarily paper-based, but by the early 90s, it had transitioned online. In 1989, Joanne Cohn, a physicist at Los Alamos National University, initiated an email list of preprints for her colleagues to facilitate this exchange of early research.

Over time, the sheer volume of papers became overwhelming as recipients' email inboxes filled up. Paul Ginsparg, a colleague of Cohn, had a brilliant idea. Ginsparg transformed the mailing list into a central repository accessible to anyone. The physics community quickly embraced this concept, and within two years, any new paper on particle physics was first posted on this platform, which we now know as arXiv.

What is arXiv?
ArXiv serves as a research hub for physicists, computer scientists, mathematicians, astronomers, and anyone engaged in serious research of any kind. Around 2015, the Indian machine learning community also enthusiastically adopted arXiv. By January 3, 2021, the repository had amassed a collection of over two million research papers. Unlike traditional journals, which can take six months or more to publish a paper due to the peer-review process, arXiv operates at lightning speed. It skips peer review, enabling rapid and widespread sharing of developments.

However, arXiv recently sparked controversy when Emily M. Bender, a renowned professor of natural language processing (NLP) and computational linguistics at the University of Washington, referred to it as "cancer." In a tweet, Bender criticized arXiv for disseminating what she called "junk 'science'" in a format that is indistinguishable from legitimate publications. She also highlighted how arXiv promotes a culture of haste, where anything older than six months is considered irrelevant in computer science.

Is ArXiv detrimental to research?
According to Bender, some researchers rush to publish just to stake their claim in a research area due to the immense hype surrounding AI and machine learning. She criticized this practice, stating that if you're worried about being scooped, you're probably not asking sufficiently interesting or original questions.

Bender also argued that arXiv's popularity has diminished the value of peer review. She claimed that many researchers boast about papers that were rejected from conferences but later gained high influence on arXiv. She noted that it's a fallacy to assume that every rejected paper is worthy.

Furthermore, Bender pointed out bias in arXiv's endorsement system, favoring "big names and big labs." ArXiv's endorsement policy states that it may grant automatic endorsements based on an individual's subject area, topic, past work, and academic affiliation. Those who wish to endorse a new submission can verify the paper's suitability for their research area. An author sends a six-character alphanumeric endorsement code to the endorser, who can enter it on an endorsement form. If they choose not to endorse, they can provide a reason in the form, which will be recorded as a negative vote. They can also opt out of the endorsement process entirely by not submitting the form.

How does arXiv's approval system function?
ArXiv employs a moderation system that publishes a paper if no moderator raises flags within a day of submission. With submissions reaching as high as 1,200 per day and only about 200 volunteer moderators spanning 150 categories, some researchers have complained that the moderation process is slow, opaque, and inconsistent.

Some criticisms of arXiv are valid. The platform has struggled to keep pace with user growth, prompting Ginsparg to move the server within Cornell in 2011. The limited number of moderators has been insufficient to handle the volume.

ArXiv's scientific director, Steinn Sigurdsson, acknowledged in January 2022 that arXiv had been understaffed and underfunded for years. In 2021, Ginsparg himself described arXiv's daily submission turnaround as "unforgiving."

While lists of moderator names for various sections were occasionally made public, most moderators for physics sections remained unnamed. ArXiv also reserves the right to reject papers without providing explanations.

What are the arguments in favor of arXiv?
Despite its flaws, arXiv remains invaluable for most independent researchers in India.

"It's very, very important. I am on it every day. Just free access for students and people like me means a lot, especially in AI research, which is evolving rapidly. These accusations are surprising to me," said Rahul Dandwate, a researcher working with the Generative AI platform rephrase.ai.

For some users, even if over-publishing is a concern, arXiv is not the root cause. "It's very important for AI researchers because it shortens wait times. I don't think arXiv is responsible for over-publishing, frankly, because all we're looking for is a citation," stated Thomas Scialom, a research scientist with Meta AI.

Photo Credit: AP

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  • TECHNOLOGY

iPhone 15 Series With USB-C Port, Dynamic Island Launched; Check All Variants And Their Prices In In

In the 'Wonderlust' event held in New Delhi, Apple unveiled its iPhone 15 lineup, bringing in some exciting new features. The lineup comprises four models: iPhone 15, iPhone 15 Plus, iPhone 15 Pro, and iPhone 15 Pro Max, each offering a unique set of features and price points. Keep scrolling to discover all the variants, their detailed specifications, and prices.

Starting with the basics, Apple has made a noteworthy shift in adopting the USB-C charging port instead of the familiar lightning cable for these new iPhones.

The iPhone 15 lineup includes the iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus, which cater to a wider audience, and the premium offerings - the iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max, which are targeted at those seeking top-tier performance.

iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus:

These models feature a dynamic island design, powered by the A16 Bionic chip. They come equipped with a 48 MP primary camera, a back glass infused with vibrant colors, and an aluminum frame. In India, the iPhone 15 starts at Rs 79,900, while the iPhone 15 Plus starts at Rs 89,900. Customers can place their pre-orders starting Friday, September 15.

iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max:

The premium models, iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max, come with a sleek titanium frame for a premium appearance. They also include the dynamic island feature and an action button for added convenience. These high-end models start at Rs 1,34,900 and Rs 1,59,900, respectively.

Both the iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus come in five eye-catching colors: pink, yellow, green, blue, and black.

According to Kaiann Drance, Apple's vice president of Worldwide iPhone Product Marketing, "iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus represent a significant advancement with exciting camera innovations, the intuitive Dynamic Island, and the powerful A16 Bionic chip. This year, we are taking computational photography to new heights with a 48MP main camera, a 24MP default for super-high-resolution photos, a 2x telephoto option, and next-generation portrait capabilities."

Here are some key features and specifications of the iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus:

Beautiful and Durable Design with an Advanced Display:

  • Available in 6.1-inch and 6.7-inch display sizes
  • Dynamic Island for interactive alerts and Live Activities
  • Enhanced experiences for navigation, music control, real-time updates, and more

Powerful Camera for Super-High Resolution:

  • 48MP Main camera with quad-pixel sensor and fast autofocus
  • A16 Bionic chip for exceptional camera performance

USB-C Charging Port:

  • Universal USB-C connector for charging and data transfer

Powerful Connection Capabilities:

  • Convenient ways to charge and stay connected
  • USB-C compatibility with various Apple devices

Now, let's delve into the features and specs of the iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max:

iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max:

  • Aerospace-grade titanium frame for durability and lightweight design
  • Customizable Action button for personalization
  • Powerful camera upgrades, including a 48MP Main camera system
  • Advanced features for photography, including Focus and Depth Control, Night mode, and Smart HDR
  • New 5x Telephoto camera exclusively on iPhone 15 Pro Max
  • A17 Pro for enhanced gaming and performance
  • Supercharged USB-C connector with USB 3 speeds

These premium models will be available in four elegant finishes: black titanium, white titanium, blue titanium, and natural titanium. Pre-orders for the iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max begin on Friday, September 15, with availability starting on Friday, September 22

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  • TECHNOLOGY

China’s Chang’e moon missions | Explained

Since 2007, China has been launching lunar missions, including orbiters, landers, rovers, and sample-return spacecraft.

Now, let's look at the Chandrayaan-3 mission. On August 23 at 6:03 pm IST, the Chandrayaan-3 lander successfully touched down in the south polar region of the moon, marking India's historic achievement as the first country to softly land in this area. The Vikram lander and the Pragyan rover have conducted various surface tests since then. Currently, China's Yutu-2 rover is the only other active instrument on the moon.

Chandrayaan-3 is India's second attempt to land on the moon, following the Chandrayaan-2 mission in 2019, which unfortunately ended in a crash.

In 2018, China landed a lander-rover module in the South Pole-Aitken Basin, although it's not as close to the south polar region as Chandrayaan's landing site. Both the Chinese and Indian missions are operational as of now.

Now, let's take a closer look at China's lunar missions.

Chang'e Missions
China has been launching lunar missions under the Chang'e program since 2007, which include orbiters, landers, rovers, and sample-return spacecraft.

Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 launched lunar orbiters.
Chang'e-3, on the other hand, launched the Yutu rover, which conducted various experiments on the lunar surface.
Initially conceived as a backup for Chang'e 3, Chang'e 4 successfully launched Yutu-2 on December 8, 2018, becoming the first rover to softly land on the moon's far side. After entering lunar orbit on December 12, 2018, Chang'e 4 completed orbital maneuvers and safely landed in the Von Karman crater within the South Pole-Aitken Basin on January 3, 2019. The rover operates during the lunar day while hibernating at night. The lander, Chang'e 4, continues to operate and serves as a communication relay between the rover and Earth's control stations, along with the orbiter Queqiao. However, specific details about the data collected and experiments conducted by the rover have not been publicly disclosed by the Chinese National Space Agency (CNSA).

Chang'e 5 was launched on November 23, 2020, with two lunar orbiters, a lander, and an ascent vehicle. Its primary mission was to collect surface samples from the Mons Rumker region of Oceanus Procellarum on the moon. After launch, Chang'e 5 completed lunar orbit maneuvers, and the descender spacecraft separated on November 29, 2020. It landed on Mons Rumker, a vast volcanic plain, equipped with a robotic arm, a coring drill, and a regolith storage chamber. The lander also had various instruments, including a Panoramic Camera, Lunar Regolith Penetrating Radar, and a Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer. After collecting and storing 1.731 kg of lunar regolith from a 1-meter depth, the ascender module transported the sample container to the orbiter, which then returned it to Earth. The return capsule landed in Inner Mongolia, northern China, on December 17, 2020. Before its return, the orbiter separated and observed the sun from the earth-moon orbit, similar to India's Aditya L-1 satellite's current trajectory.

China has additional moon missions planned, including Chang'e 6, 7, and 8 in 2024, 2026, and 2027, respectively, before ultimately sending a crewed mission to the moon by 2030. Chang'e 6, serving as a backup to Chang'e 5, will also have a lander with a scooping arm and will land on the far side of the moon in the South Pole-Aitken Basin.

In 2026, Chang'e 7 is scheduled to expand lunar exploration by conducting detailed surveys, analyzing terrain, studying geological composition, and searching for water ice in permanently shadowed craters on the moon.

In 2027, Chang'e 8 will test the technologies necessary for establishing a lunar science base in the south pole. It will carry a lander, a rover, a flying detector, and a 3D-printing module.

The Chang'e lunar exploration missions have evolved since their inception in 2007. Initially, Chang'e 1 and 2 focused on lunar orbiters and high-resolution photos of the lunar surface. Chang'e 3, launched in 2013, included the Yutu rover, which explored a significant portion of the moon, collecting data about its elemental composition and subsurface. This mission showcased China's capability to softly land on the moon.

Chang'e 4 shifted the program's focus to the moon's southern shadowed regions. Launched in 2018, it successfully landed in the Von Karman crater within the South Pole-Aitken Basin and captured the first photos of the moon's far side from the surface. Equipped with spectrometers and radars, the rover studied the lunar surface's composition.

Chang'e 5 aimed to return lunar regolith samples to Earth, successfully bringing back 1.731 kg of lunar regolith. Remarkably, Chang'e 4's lander and Yutu-2 rover, which were initially designed for a two-month mission, remain operational and continue to send data and high-resolution photos from the far side of the moon, thanks to their radioisotopic heat sources that maintain their temperatures during lunar nights.

Chang'e 5 had a specific mission duration of 23 days, from its launch on November 23, 2020, to its return on December 16, 2020. After capturing lunar orbit on November 28, the lander and ascender separated and landed on the lunar surface on December 1. The lander collected samples for one lunar day before the ascender lifted off on December 3, transferring the samples to the return capsule. The lander ultimately crashed onto the moon's surface on December 7. The return capsule, equipped with parachutes, landed in northern China on December 16. Before entering Earth's orbit, the orbiter headed to the earth-sun L1 Lagrange point to study the sun.

As of 2021, the orbiter continued its observations of Earth and the sun and was en route to the moon. Some reports suggest that the Chang'e 5 orbiter may have performed a lunar flyby before heading towards asteroid 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, which is part of China's asteroid sample-return mission scheduled for 2025.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Ian Wilmut, a British scientist who led the team that cloned Dolly the Sheep, dies at age 79

The lamb's cloning marked the pioneering moment when scientists successfully persuaded a mature adult cell to mimic the behavior of a cell from a freshly fertilized embryo, all in a bid to create a genetically identical animal.

Ian Wilmut, the cloning trailblazer whose contributions were pivotal in bringing Dolly the Sheep into existence in 1996, has passed away, as confirmed by the University of Edinburgh in Scotland on September 11. He had reached the age of 79.

Wilmut ignited a global discourse on the morality of cloning when he disclosed that his team at the Roslin Institute for animal biosciences at the university had accomplished the cloning of a lamb using the nucleus of a cell from an adult sheep.

Initially, the lamb was referred to as "6LL3" in the academic paper detailing the research, but it was later affectionately named Dolly, inspired by the renowned singer Dolly Parton.

The lamb's cloning milestone represented the first instance where scientists were able to encourage a mature adult cell to mimic the behavior of a cell from a freshly fertilized embryo, resulting in the creation of a genetically identical animal.

Although Dolly's creation was hailed as a groundbreaking achievement by some scientists, it raised concerns and ethical dilemmas among many, leading critics to question the ethics of such experiments.

The year following Dolly's birth, then-US President Bill Clinton imposed a ban on the use of federal funds for human cloning, although he did not prohibit all cloning research.

Dolly's birth motivated other scientists to embark on cloning endeavors with various animals, including dogs, cats, horses, and bulls. Furthermore, it ignited discussions about the potential cloning of humans and extinct species.

In recent times, scientists have proposed the resurrection of the woolly mammoth through a combination of gene editing and cloning.

Dolly's creation was part of a broader project undertaken by scientists to develop genetically modified sheep capable of producing therapeutic proteins in their milk. Approximately six years after her birth, Dolly was euthanized by scientists due to an incurable lung tumor.

Wilmut, who was a trained embryologist, subsequently shifted his focus towards utilizing cloning techniques to generate stem cells with potential applications in regenerative medicine. His contributions played a crucial role in research aimed at treating genetic and degenerative diseases by facilitating the repair of damaged tissue.

The Roslin Institute reported that Sir Ian Wilmut was knighted in 2008 and retired from the university in 2012. Following his retirement, he delved into research on Parkinson's disease, following his own diagnosis with the condition.

"We are deeply saddened by the news of Sir Ian Wilmut's passing," stated Bruce Whitelaw, the director of the institute. Whitelaw lauded Wilmut as a "giant" in the field of science and emphasized that his work in bringing Dolly into existence had a transformative impact on scientific thought at the time.

Whitelaw also pointed out that the legacy of Wilmut's groundbreaking work in cloning Dolly continues to influence and drive advancements in the realm of regenerative medicine that we witness today.

As of now, there has been no immediate announcement regarding the date of Sir Ian Wilmut's demise, details of survivors, or funeral arrangements.

Photo Credit: AP

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Aditya L1 mission | ISRO successfully conducts third earth-bound manoeuvre

The latest achieved orbit measures 296 km by 71767 km," the statement read. It also mentioned that the upcoming maneuver is scheduled for September 15th, around 2 a.m.

The third Earth-bound maneuver of the Aditya L-1 mission, aimed at studying the Sun, was executed successfully at ISTRAC, Bengaluru, in the early hours of September 10.

"ISTRAC, Bengaluru, has successfully conducted the third Earth-bound maneuver (EBN#3). During this operation, ISRO's ground stations in Mauritius, Bengaluru, SDSC-SHAR, and Port Blair tracked the satellite," ISRO shared on X (formerly Twitter).

The space agency further noted that the newly attained orbit measures 296 km by 71767 km, with two more maneuvers planned.

"The next maneuver (EBN#4) is scheduled for September 15, 2023, at around 02:00 Hrs. IST," ISRO confirmed.

After the final maneuver on September 18, Aditya-L1 will initiate a Trans-Lagrangian1 insertion maneuver, commencing its 110-day journey towards the L1 Lagrange point. Upon reaching the L1 point, another maneuver will secure Aditya-L1 in an orbit around L1, a gravity-neutral position between Earth and the Sun.

To reach L1, the spacecraft will execute orbital maneuvers utilizing its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) engine.

Aditya-L1 is destined to remain approximately 1.5 million km away from Earth, continuously observing the Sun, which corresponds to about 1% of the Earth-Sun distance. On September 2, ISRO successfully launched India's inaugural solar observatory mission, Aditya-L1, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

Furthermore, on September 7, ISRO delightedly shared a selfie and images of the Earth and the Moon captured by the camera onboard the Aditya-L1 solar mission spacecraft.

Photo Credit: X/@isro

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Buzzing breakthrough: genetic engineering gives mosquito control an upgrade

The concept behind genetic manipulation of mosquitoes is to regulate their populations by interfering with their ability to reproduce.

Throughout human history, mosquitoes have persistently buzzed around, causing irritation with their constant bites and occasionally transmitting deadly diseases. The earliest known mosquitoes, dating back at least 70 million years, and evidence of mosquito-borne diseases like malaria from 2000 BC Egyptian mummies, remind us of their long-standing presence.

In addition to malaria, which claims over half a million lives annually and infects nearly 250 million people, mosquitoes also act as carriers for various other diseases, including dengue, Zika, lymphatic filariasis, and yellow fever. Consequently, our relationship with these tiny, blood-sucking insects has been far from harmonious.

Assistance from sequencing technology
The rapid urbanization of the world's populations, particularly in large, economically developing countries like India, has led to yearly increases in mosquito-borne illnesses like dengue. Coupled with the effects of climate change, mosquito-borne diseases have extended into new regions. An example of this is the recent indigenous cases of dengue in France.

It's no wonder that mosquito control is currently in the spotlight, with a continuous battle using various tools, ranging from mosquito nets to insecticides and the utilization of symbionts like Wolbachia. However, with mosquito resistance to insecticides on the rise, there's an urgent need for innovative mosquito control methods, even with the availability of a first-generation malaria vaccine currently being tested in endemic regions worldwide.

Over the past two decades, our capacity to read, sequence, edit, and manipulate the genomes of organisms has provided us with new tools in this fight. Thanks to advancements in next-generation sequencing techniques, we now possess whole genome sequences for multiple mosquito species. Notably, researchers from the University of California, the Tata Institute of Genetics and Society, and the Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology have contributed to creating high-quality reference genomes for Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria-carrying mosquito (with the latter two institutes based in Bengaluru).

The availability of these high-quality sequences, combined with our ability to genetically manipulate them, presents unprecedented opportunities.

The gene drive
The core concept behind genetic manipulation of mosquitoes is to systematically control their populations by interfering with their reproductive processes. Scientists worldwide have developed various genetic modification approaches. A significant one in this endeavor is gene-drive technology, which ultimately leads to mosquitoes inheriting specific genes selectively, rather than following Mendelian genetics' traditional rules.

Gene-drive technology was initially proposed by Austin Burt, a professor at Imperial College London, in a 2003 paper published in Royal Society Proceedings. In this technique, a protein cuts the mosquito's DNA at a non-encoding part of the genome, triggering a natural cell mechanism to repair it. This forces the cell to incorporate a sequence called the "drive sequence" into the damaged section.

Numerous gene-drive versions exist in the scientific literature, all aimed at reducing mosquito populations' reproductive capabilities or rendering them sterile. Consequently, the malaria parasite cannot replicate within the mosquito's gut. In a recent study published in Science Advances, researchers at Imperial College London enhanced a gene expressed in mosquitoes' midguts to secrete two antimicrobial substances called magainin 2 and melittin. These substances are detrimental to the Plasmodium parasite's development in the midgut and also shorten female mosquitoes' lifespans. Computational models suggest that this approach could significantly disrupt malaria transmission.

Benefits and risks
In 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency authorized the release of a genetically modified mosquito known as OX5034 in counties in Florida and Texas. Oxitec developed this mosquito with a gene sensitive to an antibiotic, tetracycline. The authorization followed extensive field trials conducted by the company in Brazil. Genetically modified male OX5034 mosquitoes mated with female mosquitoes, but a self-limiting gene prevented female offspring from surviving. Consequently, male mosquitoes would gradually disappear from the environment after approximately a dozen generations.

Genetically modified mosquitoes have also been tested in controlled outdoor conditions in India, Brazil, and Panama. Initial results from these trials showed promising reductions in mosquito populations, around 90% during the trials. Additional trials demonstrated significant decreases in dengue incidence as well.

These technologies offer both benefits and risks. One immediate implication is that the drastic reduction in mosquito populations could disrupt food chains and ecosystems that involve mosquitoes. Therefore, it's possible that other mosquitoes or insects might fill the ecological gap. As such, the short-term and long-term consequences remain not fully understood. Since the outcomes affect individuals, communities, and populations, determining the right course of action and the necessary processes poses a dilemma for policymakers.

A timeless struggle
It's not surprising that genetic engineering of mosquitoes and trials involving genetically modified mosquitoes face multifaceted challenges worldwide. Critics have expressed concerns about unintended consequences, such as unforeseen ecological disruptions or the potential spread of engineered genes beyond target mosquito populations.

Some of these concerns are valid and require extensive data collection, close monitoring, and multi-stakeholder discussions regarding the adoption of this technology. On the regulatory front, the Department of Biotechnology in India released comprehensive guidelines for genetically engineered insects earlier this year, outlining procedures and regulations for working with such insects in the country.

The battle between mosquitoes and humankind appears to be a timeless struggle, showcasing human ingenuity against persistent troublemakers aided by evolution.

Photo Credit: Syed Ali/Unsplash

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  • TECHNOLOGY

MediaTek announces its first 3nm Dimensity chipset

Mediatek, in an exciting development, has unveiled its first-ever 3nm Dimensity chipset. This cutting-edge technology, produced in partnership with TSMC, is poised to hit the market in the latter half of 2024, causing a buzz in the tech world.

The flagship chipset from Mediatek, utilizing TSMC's 3nm process, is all set to make its way into a wide array of devices, ranging from smartphones and tablets to smart cars and various other gadgets.

TSMC's 3nm technology brings significant enhancements to the table. It promises an impressive 18% boost in speed while maintaining the same power levels or, alternatively, a remarkable 32% reduction in power consumption while maintaining the same speed. Additionally, it boasts a staggering 60% increase in logic density compared to its 5nm predecessor, as claimed by Mediatek.

Joe Chen, President of Mediatek, expressed his confidence in TSMC's consistent and high-quality manufacturing capabilities, allowing Mediatek to showcase its top-notch design in flagship chipsets. He emphasized that this partnership will result in high-performance and top-quality solutions for global customers, ultimately enhancing the user experience in the flagship market.

Dr. Cliff Hou, Senior Vice President of Europe and Asia Sales at TSMC, emphasized the significance of this collaboration. He highlighted how Mediatek's Dimensity SoC, powered by TSMC's cutting-edge semiconductor process technology, is bringing the industry's most advanced tech within reach of consumers, just like the smartphone in your pocket.

photo credit : The Hindu

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Onlooker! Aditya-L1 camera takes a selfie, images of Earth, Moon

ISRO shares Earth and Moon images from Aditya-L1 solar mission spacecraft.

ISRO unveiled a 'selfie' and pictures of Earth and the Moon captured by Aditya-L1's onboard camera.

"Aditya-L1, headed for the Sun-Earth L1 point, captures selfies and snaps of Earth and the Moon," declared the Bengaluru-based national space agency on 'X'.

These images showcase the VELC (Visible Emission Line Coronagraph) and SUIT (Solar Ultraviolet Imager) tools as seen by Aditya-L1's camera on September 4, 2023.

ISRO also shares Earth and Moon images captured by the camera.
Photo Credit: X: ISRO/@isro

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  • TECHNOLOGY

NASA’s LRO captures Chandrayaan-3 landing site on the Moon

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), based at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and overseen by the Science Mission Directorate at NASA's headquarters in Washington, is the managing entity for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Arizona State University is responsible for the management and operation of the LRO Camera (LROC).

Recently, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), while on its lunar mission, successfully located and captured an image of the landing site of the Chandrayaan-3 Lander Module on the Moon's surface.

According to NASA, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) achieved the Chandrayaan-3 lunar landing on August 23, 2023. This landing site is situated approximately 600 kilometers from the South Pole of the Moon. LROC, a part of LRO, acquired a unique oblique view of the lander four days later, resulting in a bright halo around the vehicle due to the interaction between the rocket plume and the Moon's fine-grained regolith (soil).

The management of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) falls under NASA's purview, with the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, playing a central role, overseen by NASA's Science Mission Directorate at their headquarters in Washington. Arizona State University is entrusted with the management and operation of LROC.

Launched on June 18, 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has amassed a wealth of data using its seven powerful instruments, contributing significantly to our understanding of the Moon.

Notably, the LRO recently captured an image of a new crater on the lunar surface, believed to be the impact site of Russia's Luna 25 mission. Unfortunately, the Luna 25 mission encountered a technical issue, leading to a crash on the Moon's surface on August 19.

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has placed the lander Vikram and rover Pragyan, which has a mission duration of one lunar day (equivalent to 14 Earth days), into a dormant state. ISRO plans to reactivate both Vikram and Pragyan on September 22, once solar power is depleted and the batteries are drained. Prior to this, the lander successfully executed a hop experiment, elevating itself by about 40 cm as commanded and landing safely at a distance of 30–40 cm from its initial position.

Photo Credit: LROC

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  • TECHNOLOGY

OpenAI defends alleged use of novels in training data sets for “innovation”

In a legal response to authors who alleged that OpenAI used their creative content without permission to develop its product, the company behind ChatGPT has defended its use of media.

OpenAI has justified its utilization of copyrighted materials, including novels, in datasets for training large language models (LLMs), arguing that fair use provides legal protection for such innovative practices.

In an official court document filed on August 28, OpenAI formally addressed the lawsuit brought by authors Paul Tremblay and Mona Awad, who asserted that the AI startup employed their copyrighted content to train ChatGPT. OpenAI has requested the dismissal of most of the claims, and it also referenced the class action complaint filed by authors Chris Golden, Sarah Silverman, and Richard Kadrey, who similarly claimed that their creative work had been utilized.

"Plaintiffs' Complaints primarily revolve around copyright claims. However, these claims misunderstand the scope of copyright law, as they fail to consider the limitations and exceptions (including fair use) that allow for innovations like the large language models currently leading the field of artificial intelligence. The fundamental purpose of copyright is to 'promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,'" stated OpenAI in its legal filing.

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Authors have previously alleged that Google and Meta also used copyrighted content for their AI products.

Certain authors have contended that ChatGPT's ability to partially summarize their work serves as evidence that it was trained on their novels. In a similar case against Google, one plaintiff claimed that the AI chatbot Bard reproduced parts of their book, nearly word-for-word.

Authors have further asserted that OpenAI, Google, and Meta have used copyrighted materials that are freely available on book piracy websites.

OpenAI emphasized in its filing that many previous court rulings have applied the fair use doctrine to acknowledge that it is acceptable for "innovators" to employ copyrighted content in "transformative ways."

Photo Credit: REUTERS

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Finally, physicists have a way to ‘see’ inside short-lived nuclei

Scientists in Japan have added a groundbreaking tool in their pursuit of unraveling a long-standing enigma: a theory to elucidate the enigmatic configurations assumed by atomic nuclei.

Approximately 150 years ago, three scientists by the names of Ernest Rutherford, Hans Geiger, and Ernest Marsden exposed a slender gold foil to radiation. By analyzing the way the rays were altered by atoms in the foil, they ascertained that every atom possesses a dense core where its mass and positive charge are concentrated.

Fast forward 70 years, Robert Hofstadter led a team that bombarded electrons at thin foils. The higher energy of the electrons allowed them to 'probe' the nucleus. Through these interactions, the team gained insight into the arrangement of charges and magnetic fields inside a nucleus.

In both instances, physicists managed to 'peer' inside stable atoms and subsequently inside their nuclei by employing other particles.

Now, researchers at the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science in Japan have taken a significant stride forward in this scientific tradition. They have demonstrated a setup capable of employing electron scattering to 'observe' unstable nuclei, including those that are not naturally occurring.

Previous experiments utilized thin foils that were easily manageable. However, the new approach is more sophisticated, employing an apparatus to contain the nuclei of caesium-137 atoms and ensure that electrons could interact with them, utilizing a system known as SCRIT. The reason this advancement took time is why a similar study couldn't have been conducted earlier.

The findings were recently published in the journal Physical Review Letters on August 30.

The SCRIT advantage

To begin, the researchers accelerated electrons in a particle accelerator to energize them, subsequently colliding them into a block of uranium carbide. This generated a stream of caesium-137 ions (atoms devoid of electrons). Caesium-137 has a half-life of roughly 30 years.

Kyo Tsukada, an associate professor at the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, and the primary author of the study, explained, "All systems are connected with vacuum pipes, and the process is executed swiftly. This technique has been designed for short-lived nuclei. If one's interest lies solely in long-lived nuclei, alternative methods such as chemical separation of radioactive isotopes might be considered."

The ions were then conveyed to the SCRIT system, an abbreviation for 'Self-Confining Radioactive-isotope Ion Target.'

Dr. Tsukada elaborated, "This method allows us to confine the target ions in three dimensions along the electron beam using the electric attractive force between the ions and the electrons. The resulting overlap between the target ions and the electron beam is very effective."

This 'overlap' significantly increased the likelihood of electron-ion collisions. According to Dr. Tsukada, SCRIT enabled the researchers to achieve this with as few as 108 caesium-137 ions, a far cry from the trillion-fold increase required without SCRIT.

"Furthermore, we recently developed an ion beam generation and beam-stacking system that enables us to extract the caesium-137 unstable nuclei as a pulsed beam immediately after the photo-fission of uranium," Dr. Tsukada added.

Enter quantum mechanics

The next step involved investigating the electron-ion interaction.

When light passes through a tiny, circular aperture, it casts a shadow on the opposite surface consisting of concentric circles of light and dark regions. This occurs because different segments of a light wave passing through the aperture are compelled to interfere with each other, producing the characteristic interference pattern on the surface.

When an electron is scattered by an atom's nucleus, it behaves like a wave during the interaction. After being scattered, the electron waves interfere with one another. The physicists employed a device known as a magnetic spectrometer to record the resulting interference pattern. This measurement process offers two significant advantages.

Firstly, interactions between particles can become convoluted. For instance, at the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, scientists amass extensive data on proton-proton collisions and analyze them using cutting-edge algorithms and supercomputers. However, interactions involving electrons are more straightforward because the theory describing them is better understood. Moreover, information about a nucleus can be more readily extracted from the interference patterns created by electrons, constituting the first advantage.

The second advantage is that researchers could sidestep particle interactions necessitating more intricate theories by fine-tuning the energy of the electrons.

The collision of particles

To sum it up, the setup at RIKEN resulted in the creation of ions, their swift transport to SCRIT, where they were primed for their encounter with electrons. Subsequently, electrons, energized to a specific energy level, collided with the ions.

Based on the magnetic spectrometer's readings, the physicists concluded that the internal structure of a caesium-137 nucleus corresponds to what had been previously established through older studies and theoretical calculations.

This outcome is of paramount importance: physicists have now successfully tested a setup capable of scrutinizing the nuclear structure of short-lived atomic nuclei using electron scattering. While caesium-137 itself is not short-lived, Dr. Tsukada clarified, "This experiment serves as a demonstration of our facility, and caesium-137 was chosen as the initial example. All procedures are exactly the same as those employed for short-lived nuclear targets."

In essence, the physicists have unveiled a "femtoscope." Just as a light microscope can examine objects on the scale of micrometers, a femtoscope is a device equipped to explore the femtometer scale (10-15 m) of atomic nuclei.

This is a significant development as it introduces a novel tool into the arsenal of physicists as they embark on solving an age-old, unresolved issue: the absence of a comprehensive theory explaining the structure of atomic nuclei.

Over the years, physicists have encountered numerous atomic properties stemming from idiosyncrasies in their nuclei. One such phenomenon is the 'island of stability.' Ordinarily, the heavier the nucleus of an unstable element, the quicker it undergoes radioactive decay. However, scientists have identified some isotopes that decay more slowly than their weight would suggest.

When plotting a graph with the number of protons on one axis and the number of neutrons on the other, they observed that most isotope nuclei aligned along a straight line. Yet, some isotopes clustered around a proton count of 112. This grouping is referred to as the 'island of stability' since these nuclei display unusual stability. This particular proton count has been termed the 'magic number.'

There exist theories regarding the explanation of these islands – and possibly others like them – but they remain speculative. Physicists are hopeful that by employing a femtoscope, similar to the one constructed by the RIKEN team, they will be able to investigate the structures of nuclei expected to exhibit peculiar shapes, such as those with non-uniform densities of protons and neutrons, potentially leading to the discovery of a unified theory of nuclear structure within the gaps between anticipated and unexpected shapes.

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Chandrayaan-3 | Vikram hops on the Moon and lands safely

In response to your request, here's the passage translated into Indian English with SEO-friendly keywords:

"On command, the Vikram lander fired its engines, lifting itself by about 40 cm as anticipated, and safely touched down at a distance of 30 to 40 cm.

The Vikram lander of the Chandrayaan-3 mission achieved a noteworthy milestone as it successfully carried out a hop experiment.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announced on Tuesday that the lander had effectively executed a hop experiment. Following the command, it engaged its engines, rose by approximately 40 cm as planned, and landed safely 30-40 cm away.

This successful hop experiment and commencement have potential implications for upcoming missions, including those aimed at retrieving lunar samples and future human expeditions to the moon.

The lander, which carried the rover Pragyan, had a successful soft landing on August 23, after which Pragyan was deployed on the lunar surface.

"The Vikram Lander exceeded its mission goals, successfully completing a hop experiment.

Responding to commands, it propelled itself upwards by about 40 cm as expected and landed safely at a distance of 30-40 cm. Why is this important? This 'kickstart' boosts enthusiasm for future sample retrieval and human missions," the space agency shared on X (formerly Twitter).

Furthermore, ISRO confirmed that all systems operated as expected and remained in good condition.

"Ramp, ChaSTE, and ILSA were folded back and redeployed successfully after the experiment," ISRO added.

The lander, accompanied by the rover Pragyan, touched down softly on August 23, and Pragyan was later deployed on the lunar surface.

Since then, one of the instruments onboard Vikram, while conducting on-site measurements, identified the presence of plasma near the lunar surface. Additionally, two instruments detected and confirmed the presence of sulphur in the moon's southern polar region.

Moreover, Pragyan has covered a distance of over 100 meters from Vikram on the moon's surface.

On September 2, ISRO announced that Pragyan had completed its assigned tasks and had been safely parked in sleep mode. The battery was fully charged, and the solar panel was adjusted to receive sunlight at the next sunrise expected on September 22.

 Photo Credit: ISRO

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Aditya-L1 lifts off to study the sun

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, or PSLV, gracefully ascended from Sriharikota at 11.50 a.m., embarking on one of its lengthiest journeys to place a spacecraft into a highly eccentric orbit around Earth.

India's maiden solar observatory mission, Aditya-L1, was inaugurated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on September 2.

In its 59th voyage, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) carried the Aditya-L1 into the skies, departing from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at precisely 11.50 a.m.

Approximately 63 minutes post-liftoff, the Aditya-L1 was released into space, with the PSLV launching it into an exceedingly eccentric orbit around Earth at 12.53 p.m. This mission marked one of ISRO's most protracted PSLV flights in recent memory.

Following the successful launch, the Aditya-L1 will linger in Earth's orbit for 16 days, during which it will undergo five strategic maneuvers to gain the necessary velocity for its extended voyage toward the sun.

Subsequently, the spacecraft will execute a Trans-Lagrangian1 insertion maneuver, signaling the initiation of its 110-day course towards its destination around the L1 Lagrange point. Upon reaching the L1 point, another maneuver will anchor the Aditya-L1 into an orbit around L1, an equilibrium point between Earth and the sun governed by gravitational forces.

The spacecraft will carry out orbital adjustments using its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) engine to attain the L1 position.

Aditya-L1 will position itself roughly 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, directed towards the sun, which corresponds to about 1% of the Earth-Sun distance.

Over its five-year mission life, Aditya-L1's payloads are anticipated to provide vital insights into various solar phenomena, including coronal heating, coronal mass ejections, pre-flare and flare activities, space weather dynamics, and particle and field propagation.

The seven payloads aboard Aditya-L1 include: Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT), Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS), High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS), Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX), Plasma Analyser Package For Aditya (PAPA), and Advanced Tri-axial High-Resolution Digital Magnetometers.

The solar panels on Aditya-L1 have been successfully deployed, and the spacecraft is now generating power.

Following the launch, ISRO Chairperson S. Somanath remarked, "The Aditya-L1 spacecraft has been placed in a precisely intended elliptical orbit of 235 km by 19,500 km, thanks to the PSLV's exceptional precision. This mission mode is quite unique, with the PSLV's upper stage performing two burn sequences to position the primary satellite for the first time. Aditya-L1 will now commence its 125-day odyssey after a few maneuvers."

The inaugural orbit-raising maneuver is scheduled for September 3, around 11.45 a.m.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi took to X (formerly Twitter) to express his congratulations, stating, "After the triumph of Chandrayaan-3, India continues its celestial voyage. Congratulations to our dedicated scientists and engineers at @isro for the successful launch of India's first Solar Mission, Aditya-L1. Our tireless scientific endeavors will persist in our quest to enhance our comprehension of the Universe for the benefit of all humanity."

Union Minister of State (independent charge) for Science & Technology Jitendra Singh added, "Congratulations India, congratulations ISRO... This is indeed a moment of sunshine for India, and the whole world watched this with bated breath."

The seven payloads aboard the Aditya-L1 satellite are as follows:

  1. Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC)
  2. Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT)
  3. Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS)
  4. High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS)
  5. Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX)
  6. Plasma Analyser Package For Aditya (PAPA)
  7. Advanced Tri-axial High-Resolution Digital Magnetometers
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  • TECHNOLOGY

Aditya-L1 mission to mark 25th flight of PSLV-XL variant

On September 2, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is all set to embark on its Aditya-L1 mission, and for this historic launch, they've chosen a variant of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). This PSLV variant has an impressive track record, having been the launch vehicle for India's pioneering missions to both the moon and Mars.

The upcoming PSLV-C57/Aditya-L1 mission is a landmark event for India as it marks the country's inaugural solar mission. This mission also signifies a significant milestone for the PSLV-XL variant, which will be making its 25th flight.

The PSLV-XL is the most robust configuration of the PSLV, equipped with six strap-on motors, the maximum for this type of expendable launch vehicle. This configuration was first utilized during the launch of India's first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. Since then, it has been employed in several high-profile missions, including the Mars Orbiter Mission, known as Mangalyaan, launched in November 2013.

The last time the PSLV flew in the XL configuration was in November 2022 when it successfully deployed the EOS-06 satellite, the primary payload, along with eight nano-satellites into Earth's orbit.

Often referred to as 'ISRO's trusted workhorse,' the four-stage PSLV comes in various versions, featuring six strap-on motors (XL), four (QL), and two (DL) rocket strap-on motors to enhance the thrust provided by its first stage. These strap-ons are powered by the solid rocket propellant Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB).

Additionally, there's the CA (core alone) version, which doesn't use strap-on motors. The two previous PSLV missions, PSLV-C55 and PSLV-C56, conducted in April and July of this year, used the CA variant to deploy the TeLEOS-2 and DS-SAR satellites into orbit, respectively.

The highly anticipated PSLV-C57/Aditya-L1 mission is scheduled for liftoff from Sriharikota at 11:50 a.m. on Saturday. The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is equipped with seven scientific payloads designed to study the sun and weighs in at 1,480.7 kg. This mission represents India's first space-based observatory-class solar mission. Following a four-month journey covering a staggering 1.5 million km, the spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit at the Lagrangian point L1.

Photo Credit: PTI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Countdown for India’s first solar observatory mission Aditya-L1 starts

The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is all set to soar into the sky on September 2, 2023, at 11:50 a.m., as it is scheduled for liftoff by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from Sriharikota.

The countdown for India's pioneering solar observatory mission, Aditya-L1, has officially begun at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

In a tweet from ISRO's official account, they declared, "The countdown leading to the launch at 11:50 Hrs. IST on September 2, 2023 has commenced."

This marks the 59th mission of the PSLV and the 25th mission employing the PSLV-XL configuration.

The PSLV will catapult the Aditya-L1 spacecraft into a highly eccentric earth-bound orbit.

ISRO reveals that the spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit around Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the sun-earth system, situated about 1.5 million km from Earth.

"A satellite positioned in the halo orbit around the L1 point enjoys the significant advantage of uninterrupted sun observations without any hindrance or eclipses. This offers a tremendous advantage for real-time observation of solar activities and their impact on space weather. The spacecraft carries seven payloads designed to scrutinize the photosphere, chromosphere, and the outermost layers of the sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. From the unique vantage point L1 provides, four payloads will have a direct view of the sun, while the remaining three will conduct in-situ studies of particles and fields at Lagrange point L1, offering invaluable insights into the propagatory effects of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium," details the Aditya-L1 mission profile.

The data collected by the Aditya-L1 payloads is expected to provide crucial information to comprehend phenomena such as coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities, space weather dynamics, and the propagation of particles and fields.

The satellite carries seven payloads onboard, including the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT), Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS), High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS), Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX), Plasma Analyser Package For Aditya (PAPA), and Advanced Tri-axial High Resolution Digital Magnetometers.

The launch of Aditya-L1 follows India's historic achievement of becoming the fourth nation to successfully land on the moon and the first to land near the lunar south pole.
Photo Credit: PTI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Cdr Abhilash Tomy to advise ISRO on recovery of astronauts after splashdown

In April, Commander Abhilash Tomy achieved a historic feat by becoming the first Indian to successfully complete the esteemed Golden Globe Race (GGR) 2022.

Renowned circumnavigator and the sole Indian to accomplish the Golden Globe Race (GGR), Retired Commander Abhilash Tomy, will be guiding and mentoring two dedicated women officers from the Indian Navy, Lieutenant Commander Dilna and Lieutenant Commander Roopa. They are all set to embark on Sagar Parikrama IV, a remarkable sailing expedition around the world aboard the Indian Naval Sailing Vessel Tarini, scheduled for the upcoming year. Commander Tomy is also presently collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for its human space mission, Gaganyaan. His expertise involves advising on the retrieval of astronauts from the sea.

Before the formal initiation of preparations for Sagar Parikrama IV, the Navy's Ocean Sailing Node entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with Commander Tomy. The signing ceremony witnessed the presence of Vice Admiral Krishna Swaminathan, Controller of Personnel Services and Vice President of the Indian Naval Sailing Association (INSA), along with Rear Admiral Rajesh Dhankhar, Commandant of the Naval War College. This significant development was announced by the Navy in a statement on Thursday.

Lieutenant Commander Dilna and Lieutenant Commander Roopa will constitute the team for the ambitious circumnavigation sailing voyage on the Indian Naval Sailing Vessel Tarini next year. Both officers had previously participated in the seven-month-long, 17000-nautical-mile trans-oceanic "Goa to Rio & Back" Tarini Expedition.

"In the upcoming months, the two officers will undergo rigorous training for the mission under the guidance of Commander Tomy. This will encompass numerous short and extended sailing journeys across the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean," as communicated by the Navy. Commander Tomy will also offer mentorship to participants of other sailing expeditions and share his insights during motivational sessions at training institutions.

Sagar Parikrama IV will involve a crossing that has never been attempted before, marking a significant milestone in India's ocean sailing endeavors, as highlighted by the Navy.

Discussing his involvement with ISRO, Commander Tomy informed The Hindu that he is contributing to enhancing procedures for the retrieval of astronauts after their capsule splashes down in the sea upon return. "Upon landing, they touch down in the sea. ISRO required assistance in refining their protocols for sea-based recovery," he explained.

If all goes according to plan, a designated recovery point has been chosen, and the Navy will retrieve the astronauts. However, in the event of a mishap during landing, given the vast expanse of potential landing spots worldwide, a search and rescue operation will be initiated. "The Navy will take time to reach the location. It will involve a search and rescue process," he added.

While participating in the GGR in 2018, Commander Tomy sustained a severe back injury and found himself stranded in the southern Indian Ocean, approximately 1900 nautical miles from Perth, Australia, and 2700 nautical miles from Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari). He was ultimately rescued through a collaborative multinational search and rescue mission. Earlier this year, another GGR-2022 participant, Ian Herbert Jones, was rescued from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean just three days after raising a distress signal.

Commander Tomy underscored the critical role of emergency locator beacons, which possess sufficient endurance to allow rescue teams adequate time to reach individuals in remote oceanic regions.

In April, Commander Tomy etched his name in history by becoming the first Indian to successfully complete the prestigious GGR 2022, securing the second position after enduring a grueling 236 days alone at sea in a sailboat, in an awe-inspiring display of determination and endurance.

Photo Credit: The Hindu

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Coronagraph of Aditya-L1 will send 1,440 images of sun a day

Aditya-L1, ISRO's much-anticipated mission, is all set for its launch on September 2 at 11.50 a.m. from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

The core payload of this pioneering scientific endeavor, the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), is developed by the esteemed Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru. This advanced instrument will capture and transmit a remarkable 1,440 images of the sun each day to ground stations.

Hailing from the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the sun-earth system, located approximately 1.5 million km away from Earth, VELC will enable continuous monitoring of the sun's corona.

Although Aditya-L1 is slated for liftoff on September 2, there's an exciting cruise phase of over 100 days before it reaches the designated L1 position. Upon arrival, the observation window is anticipated to open, likely in the initial weeks of January 2024. Principal Investigator of the VELC payload, Ramesh. R, shared these details with The Hindu.

Professor Ramesh emphasized that the VELC payload is primed to deliver a staggering 1,440 daily images of the sun. The payload's design ensures that every minute, a new sun image is acquired, culminating in this impressive volume of data. The effective processing and timely dissemination of this data are key.

Considering the magnitude of this endeavor, Professor Ramesh expressed confidence in the IIA's and ISRO's readiness to handle such voluminous data. Their established systems are geared up for the task at hand.

Massive computing power is in place to manage the incoming data flow. The Indian Deep Space Network in Bylalu will facilitate the download of Level 0 data from the spacecraft. These data will be processed at the Payload Operations Centre within 24 hours and then sent to the Indian Space Science Data Centre for wider distribution.

Aside from the VELC payload, Aditya-L1 will carry six other payloads, extending the mission's duration to five years.

IIA Director Annapurni Subramaniam underscored the significance of the VELC payload, describing it as the spacecraft's cornerstone. From its vantage point at L1, the spacecraft will capture diverse images of the sun, enhancing our comprehension of its characteristics and the surrounding corona. Prof. Annapurni Subramaniam further highlighted the intricate nature of VELC, which specializes in observing specific spectral lines.

In summary, the launch of Aditya-L1 by ISRO is a highly anticipated event, with the VELC payload poised to unveil a wealth of insights about the sun and its corona, all thanks to India's scientific prowess.

Photo source PTI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Aditya-L1, first space-based Indian observatory to study the Sun, to be launched on September 2

As per ISRO, the spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, which is approximately 1.5 million kilometers away from Earth.

Aditya-L1, India's inaugural space-based observatory for studying the sun, is set to be launched on September 2, as declared by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Monday.

"The launch of Aditya-L1, India's foremost space-based sun observatory, is planned for September 2, 2023, at 11:50 AM IST from Sriharikota," ISRO shared on X, previously known as Twitter.

According to ISRO, the spacecraft will be put into a halo orbit encircling the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, situated around 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. The spacecraft is anticipated to take over 120 days to reach the L1 point.

"A satellite positioned in the halo orbit near the L1 point holds a key advantage of continuously observing the sun without any obstructions or eclipses. This allows for enhanced monitoring of solar activities and their impact on space weather in real-time. The spacecraft carries seven distinct payloads for observing the photosphere, chromosphere, and the outer layers of the sun (the corona) using electromagnetic, particle, and magnetic field sensors. From the unique vantage of L1, four payloads will directly capture sun observations, while the remaining three will conduct on-site investigations of particles and fields at the Lagrange point L1. This will provide crucial scientific insights into the propagation effects of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium," explains the Aditya L1 mission description.

The instruments aboard Aditya L1 are expected to offer vital insights into comprehending phenomena such as coronal heating, coronal mass ejections, pre-flare and flare activities, space weather dynamics, and the spread of particles and fields.

The satellite houses seven payloads: Visible Emission Line Coronagraph, Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer, High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer, Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment, Plasma Analyzer Package for Aditya, and Advanced Tri-axial High-Resolution Digital Magnetometers.
Photo Credit: ANI

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Skyroot expects to double rocket launches amid Chandrayaan-3's success

The Hyderabad-based company, supported by Singapore's sovereign wealth fund, GIC, is also targeting to secure additional funds by the end of next year.

Skyroot Aerospace, the pioneer of India's first private rocket launch in 2022, has set its sights on doubling its planned launches from the upcoming year, riding on the potential growth of the country's emerging private space industry due to the triumph of the Chandrayaan-3 moon mission.

The company, headquartered in Hyderabad and backed by Singapore's sovereign wealth fund, GIC, is also aiming to raise additional capital by the conclusion of the following year, as per co-founder Pawan Kumar Chandana's statement to Reuters.

"Starting from 2024 onwards, our objective is to carry out a minimum of two launches annually, and this frequency might increase as we progress," explained Chandana, whose company is all set to launch its second rocket into space by year-end.

Chandana, a former scientist at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), disclosed that he has been receiving "numerous inquiries from both global and domestic investors" interested in comprehending Skyroot's business, particularly since India achieved the historic feat of landing safely on the lunar south pole.

With the aim of reducing satellite launch expenses in an increasingly competitive industry, Skyroot conducted the first private rocket launch in India. This field is becoming more congested as various enterprises develop satellite networks to offer broadband services, requiring frequent small satellite launches.

Chandana conveyed that the company is charting a course to expand its workforce of 280 employees by 20% within the next two years to facilitate the anticipated surge in launch activities.

Furthermore, a fundraising endeavor is on the horizon for 2024, surpassing the $51 million obtained in the previous funding round led by GIC. Chandana didn't provide additional specifics but indicated, "Our current financial resources are substantial. Therefore, we anticipate our next major fundraising round, which will be the Series C round, to take place around the end of 2024.
Photo Credit: Reuters

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  • TECHNOLOGY

Apple’s ‘Right to Repair’ volte-face is a big deal

Apple's surprising U-turn on its stance against the "right to repair" holds significance as it was one of the tech giants opposing the concept of allowing users to repair their own damaged devices.

Apple's stance took an unexpected turn on Thursday. The company, which was against the "right to repair" movement just a few years ago, has now become its newest supporter.

At one point, Apple's lobbyists reportedly informed Nebraska state legislators that providing users unauthorized repair access would attract hackers to the state. However, the iPhone manufacturer is now backing a crucial piece of legislation that grants consumers and third-party firms the authority to repair damaged electronic products.

Apple has endorsed the proposed legislation in its current form in a letter to Senator Susan Eggman, the sponsor of California's "right to repair" bill. The company believes that this law would benefit users, safeguard their privacy and security.

The endorsement from Apple is expected to alleviate concerns about industry compliance, according to Hayley Tsukayama, Associate Director of Legislative Activism at the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). This move is likely to make the bill more appealing to other states as well.

A Change in Perspective

In an ideal situation, when you buy a product, you should have the freedom to do whatever you wish with it. However, the concept of ownership began to shift with the enactment of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) by U.S. lawmakers in the late 90s, aimed at curbing intellectual property theft.

This was a time when people primarily communicated through landline phones. Mobile devices were just gaining popularity, and dial-up connections were providing access to the emerging internet.

No one could have predicted the rise of the internet-powered smartphone era that emerged a decade later. Powerful hardware coupled with intricately designed software gave birth to the era of smart mobile devices, voice-activated speakers, and sleek computers.

These innovations extended beyond communication gadgets, impacting various industries. Today, nearly all manufactured products feature microchips supported by well-designed software. Proprietary software has become crucial as more devices rely on agile software for their functioning. However, this makes it difficult for consumers to repair devices that malfunction.

In the U.S., major tech companies had prohibited consumers and third-party repairers from fixing software-controlled devices, using the DMCA as a legal basis. This enabled these companies to retain control over repairs through authorized service centers.

The DMCA, enacted just before the turn of the millennium, protected original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) by preventing third-party repairers from bypassing software protection codes.

Copyright Office Intervenes

However, the U.S. Copyright Office recently permitted users to repair various devices, including automobiles. In 2021, the office introduced new exemptions to the DMCA, extending protection to consumer devices reliant on software codes.

Furthermore, multiple U.S. states have passed "right to repair" laws allowing consumers to repair their devices to some extent. States like Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New York have enacted variations of these laws. Approximately 40 states are reportedly working on legislation to grant consumers the right to repair their products.

California aims to enact its own right to repair law following a disappointing outcome the previous year. The SB 244 bill, combined with the Song-Beverly Act, provides specific guidelines regarding the duration OEMs must supply parts and repair support.

The legislation covers a wide array of consumer products that can be repaired without involving a company-authorized service center. The law empowers the state to take legal action against manufacturers violating these regulations, imposing fines of up to $5,000 per day. However, gaming consoles and alarm systems are excluded due to security concerns.

To address concerns about intellectual property, the legislation doesn't require OEMs to share trade secrets or disclose a product's source code.

Apple's Change of Heart

Apple's change of heart, based in Cupertino, holds significance, especially considering its past clashes with antitrust regulators over consumer protection laws.

In 2018, Australia's antitrust regulator fined Apple $9 million (AUD) in a "bricking" case. This case involved Apple using a software update to disable numerous iPhones and iPads, subsequently refusing to unlock them when serviced by third-party entities. The company later issued a software patch to unlock the affected devices.

A growing movement advocating for the "right to repair" has pressured major tech companies, including Apple, to adapt. A couple of years ago, Apple introduced a self-service repair program that enabled users to buy parts and rent tools for repairing their devices. The SB 244 legislation is likely to amplify the influence of the "right to repair" movement.

According to Hayley Tsukayama from EFF, the California bill is more robust than the one passed in New York. It differs from Minnesota's legislation as well. For instance, California's bill covers devices sold to schools and builds upon the state's existing warranty law.

A Lesson for Tesla

Despite the growing momentum of the "right to repair" movement, its impact on the automobile industry, especially companies like Tesla, remains limited. Tesla faces legal challenges in California, accused of unlawfully restricting competition in car maintenance and repair. This has resulted in significant expenses for car owners.

Two lawsuits filed against Tesla allege that the company designed cars and repair policies to discourage the use of third-party shops not under Tesla's control. Such policies have led to prolonged wait times, which could have been minimized if owners had the option of choosing local repair shops.

The outcome of these lawsuits remains uncertain. In the absence of a comprehensive federal law covering the right to repair all consumer products, corporations continue to exert undue influence over buyers even after a sale.

Endorsement from major tech companies for such legislation can help lawmakers strike a balance between consumer advocates and businesses, streamlining the legislative process. Achieving consensus on a unified solution significantly enhances the chances of passing these laws, as highlighted by Hayley Tsukayama.
Photo Credit: Reuters